Thursday, January 23, 2014




  1. Information in the slides is obtained from the module of TSL3107, for the use of students of PPG TESL Sem 4 Ambilan Khas Feb 2013, IPTHO.

  2. TASK: Name the approach/ approaches you use in the teaching of writing to your pupils in the primary ESL classroom. Briefly describe the stages of one writing lesson showing the approach/ approaches that you use.

  3. Approaches that I am using in my ESL classroom is Process Approach. It depends on my level 1 students that I need to guide them because they are early learner student. In this process, there are 4 staging approach.
    1) Pre writing
    Teacher will choose one topic such as object in the classroom. Students organize ideas into mind map.
    2) Writing
    Students write the first draft in a group.
    3) Revising
    Drafts are returned and making changes to improve the writing.
    4) Evaluation
    Respond to others work. Teacher evaluates students work. Assessing the written work.
    This approach suitable for level 1 student because it controlled practice of focus language structures.
    Maria bt Zainal
    Ppg Tesl 4

  4. Generally, I've used all the approaches in my lessons. I make sure that they suited my pupils' ability to learn and accept the lessons. But I found that the most appropriate approach to be used based on my pupils' readiness to learn the skill of writing individually and in group is the Process Approach.
    1.Usually I started my lesson with an introduction of a storybook.
    2.Then I generated some ideas through a simple discussion or brainstorming for pre-writing. Chosen pupils were to note down the important words.
    3. For While-writing stage, teacher encouraged the pupils to write the first draft.
    4. Post writing - Pupils finished up their draft individually. Teacher may asks pupils to exchange their work with their classmate.
    5. Evaluates the pupils may check their body parts and the usage food.

    1. Hi Azlima, I agree with your approches that you were used in your lesson. I also used the same approches.Right now, I would like to share with you the steps of writing.

      Using the writing process helps writers do their best work!
      There are five steps in the writing process. Let's take a look at them!

      The first step is prewriting. This is the planning step. During this step the writer should:
      -Choose a subject.
      -Gather details about the subject using a graphic organizer.
      -Decide what you want to tell your audience.

      The second step is writing a first draft. This is a time to get your ideas down. During this step the writer should:
      -Write all of your ideas down on paper.
      -Don't stop to check spelling or mechanics just yet, but do spell the best that you can. Circle words that you are unsure of so that you can find the correct spelling during the editing step.

      The third step is revising. This is a time to improve your writing. During this step the writer should:
      -Read and review your first draft.
      -Share (Conference) your draft with another person, get ideas on how to improve your writing.
      -Make changes to improve your writing piece.

      The fourth step is editing and proofreading.
      -Make sure that your writing makes sense.
      -Edit (check) your spelling, capital letters, and punctuation. Use editing marks.
      -Write a neat final copy of your work
      -Reread and recheck for errors one last time.

      The fifth and last step is to publish your work.
      -Illustrate your writing.
      -Share your writing.
      -Display your writing in the classroom.

      Remember, using the writing process helps a writer write better.

      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl Sem 4

    2. Dear sis Ima,
      I like your teaching step.It is very fluently and very clear explanation.Mostly, for year 1, 2 and 3 student need fully guide from teacher. When they do the activity with teacher and their friends,it makes them active and help each other confidently.

  5. A genre approach views writing as predominantly linguistic. The genre approach, however, places a greater emphasis on the social context in which writing is produced. At the heart of the approach its describes genre as “a class of communicative events ”. A range of methods is employed in a classroom using the genre approach. For instance, Paltridge (2001) proposes a framework that involves investigating the texts and contexts of students’ target situations, encouraging reflection on writing practices, exploiting texts from different types of genre and creating mixed genre portfolios. The genre approach “emphasis on the interactive collaboration between teacher and student, with the teacher taking an authoritative role to ‘scaffold’ or support learners as they move towards their potential level of performance.” In the scaffolding activity, students are provided with models, and are asked to discuss and analyse their language and structure. The scaffolding element gradually lightens as the learners independently produce a text parallel to the model. The role of the teachers thus moves from explicit instructor to facilitator and eventually the learners gain autonomy. This approach is more suitable for Level II students especially for the weaker classes.

    Uma Mageswari D/O Balakrishnan

  6. Approaches that I am using in my ESL classroom is Process Approach.In this process, there are 5 staging approach.

    1. Pre-writing: This is the planning phase of the writing process, when students brainstorm, research, gather and outline ideas, often using diagrams for mapping out their thoughts.

    Drafting: Students create their initial composition by writing down all their ideas in an organized way to convey a particular idea or present an argument. Audience and purpose need to be finalized.

    Revising: Students review, modify, and reorganize their work by rearranging, adding, or deleting content, and by making the tone, style, and content appropriate for the intended audience. The goal of this phase of the writing process is to improve the draft.

    Editing: At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity.

    Publishing: In this last step of the writing process, the final writing is shared with the group. Sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    SEM 4

    1. Mr. Ganesan used the same approach with me but he has another stage in his writing that is Publishing. In my opinion, this stage is would attract the pupils to write more. So the other pupils in the classroom can share their ideas to write as he mention above "sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways". As a teacher, we know that there are many ways to to do the activity. Pupils also love to look at their work to be display or to be read by the teacher in the classroom. "Sharing is caring"

    2. I like the publishing steps used by Ganesan where the pupils will share their final work with their friends. This will help pupils to get more is ideas of their friends final work and they can fin out the differences between their final work. Think this process can be done by selecting pupils to read their final work aloud or give it to their friends and discuss within the group.

  7. In teaching writing to my primary ESL pupils I can use all the process in my lessons but here I have to cater my pupil’s need. There were many differences need between Phase 1 and Phase 2 pupils. In my opinion Process Approach would suit my pupil’s ability more.

    This approach contain of four common stages. The stages are:

    Pre-writing – This is used for selecting a topic and planning what to teach in the lesson by using many kinds of way. Such as mind mapping or research.

    Writing – For the pupils to make a simple draft version on paper with their peers and then exchange with other peers,

    Revising – Pupils will receive their draft and making changes to improve the writing.

    Evaluation – As a teacher, we have to assess the written work by the pupils to check and ensure the pupils didn’t make a lot of mistake.

    At this point pupils can enjoy the lesson with their friends freely, emphasis more on writing skills but with teacher’s guidance. Pupils also will be active to participate in the classroom during the lesson.

    I did some research too, “however many process writing specialists have agreed that there are stages writers go through in the writing process but have not agreed on naming each stage and how many stages there should be”. Jungnan Bae.

  8. I tend to use any of those approaches if its suitable with the lesson I plan or just based on the pupils ability. Usually for the better pupils my teaching will focus more on process writing because I think the pupils will gain more knowledge and I can gain more participation from my pupils.

    Pre-Writing - Used to select or introduced the topic of the day. Do mind mapping with pupils or pupils discussed mind map in groups.

    Writing - Pupils will do draft of upon the topic based on the mind map. Then they can exchange papers with their classmates.

    Revising - Pupils do discussions with their peers and teacher which can improve their draft or gain more ideas or make changes.

    Evaluation - Pupils make changes or improve their draft with ideas they gain from their friends or teacher. Teacher assesses pupils work to make sure the pupils is on the right path.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL Sem 4

  9. Process Writing

    Pre-Writing :Teacher select the topic.Then brainstorming,in this stage,pupils
    will think about what to write, or how to write.

    Writing: Before they write,pupils will do a rough draft first.This to make sure thy have a clear direction when writing.This can be mind mapping or note down important ideas.

    Revise and edit

    Revision lets them look at their paper in terms of the topic,and ideas. Pupils canadd more paragraphs or remove paragraphs to better fit into the topic. In a word, revising means that they organize their writing better.

    Editing typically means that they go over their writing to make sure that they do not have any grammatical errors or strange phrases that make it difficult for readers to understand what they are trying to say. In other words, editing meansto take care of minor errors in writing. This is a lot like polishing their writing.


    Teacher evaluates students work.

  10. The Free-Writing Approach
    Students in this approach are assigned large amounts of free writing for which they get little or no correction. Often the teacher will assign topics or topic areas, but she may also let
    the students pick their won topic. The purpose of this approach is to achieve fluency in writing. Students are also encouraged to practice tailoring their writing to the needs of
    an audience. The underlying belief teachers have in using this type of approach is that once a certain degree of fluency is established and all fear of writing is eradicated, accuracy
    and organization will come. While this approach is seen as being effective in that students are able to self-discover their own set of skilful practices and techniques as writers it is also marked with certain limitations. It is not an approach which works well instudents with low proficiency in the language. In this respect it is much more amenable to the ESL than the EFL situation for the simple reason that ESL student have daily opportunities to speak and use the language and this type of practice which develops fluency in speaking might be need
    to develop fluency in writing in this `hands off` type of approach.

  11. hi are my activities to teach writing...

    Getting started can be difficult, so students divided into groups quickly produce words and ideas about the writing.
    Students make a plan of the writing before they start. These plans can be compared and discussed in groups before writing takes place.
    Generating ideas
    Discovery tasks such as cubing (students write quickly about the subject in six different ways - they:
    1. describe it
    2. compare it

    pupils have focused and they already know what to write based on the mind map they drafted before.
    Revising - Pupils do discussions with their peers and teacher which can improve their draft or gain more ideas or make changes.

    evaluate- teacher or peer evaluate.after that,pupils rewrite the correct one.

  12. Process-oriented and product-oriented approaches to the teaching of writing.

    The product-oriented approach to the teaching of writing emphasizes mechanical
    aspects of writing, such as focusing on grammatical and syntactical structures and imitating models.
    The writing exercises applied in this approach typically deal with sentence-level writing and paragraph-level organization.
    Process-oriented approaches concern the process of how ideas are developed and
    formulated in writing.
    Teaching writing must involve both process and product. Teachers should first focus
    on the organization of the writing. As the next step, they should deal with grammatical
    problems seen in writing. When students are not good at organizing their ideas, the teacher should deal with this before moving on to grammatical mistakes (presumably, later in the term). This is for several reasons, among them that better organization often leads to the reduction of other errors and, of course, the clear expression of ideas is the major point of writing.

    The stages are:-
    Stage 1 : A composition that includes a single picture with a one-word label.
    Stage 2 : A composition that includes a single picture with a two - three label ( sight word, noun, adjective)
    Stage 3 : A composition that includes a picture with a simple sentence ( sight word, noun, verb, adjective )

  13. As a teacher, in order to make sure our pupils can focus and understand what we try to teach them, we will use many approaches in our lesson. I also use many approaches not just what i learn but sometimes i am using my own approaches. This is because it depent on our pupils ability. I usually using procees approach. in

    this approach we focus on
    a) pre writing- selecting a topic and planning what to say
    b) writing - putting a draft version on paper
    c) revising - making changes to improve the writing
    d)evaluation - assessing the written work

  14. Hi friends,
    for me I usually various my approach to teach writing.
    here are the activies I prepared for my pupils when I teach year 3 behind class.

    Process Approach.
    Topic: Healthy Food.

    Stage 1.
    teacher provides mind map of healthy foods.
    Stage 2
    Students extend ideas into note form, and judge quality and usefulness of ideas.
    Stage 3
    Pupils organize ideas into a mind map,
    Stage 4
    Pupils write the first draft. This is done in class and frequently in pairs or groups.
    Stage 5
    students develop an awareness of the fact that a writer is producing something to be read by someone else, and thus can improve their own drafts.
    Stage 6
    Drafts are returned and improvements are made based upon peer feedback.

    Stage 7
    A final draft is written.

    Stage 8
    Pupils once again exchange and read each other's work and perhaps even write a response or reply.
    Thank You.