Thursday, January 23, 2014

TSL3108-TEACHING OF GRAMMAR IN THE PRIMARY CLASSROOM-3

TOPIC 3-GRAMMAR IN THE M'SIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM















































35 comments :

  1. Information in the slides is obtained from the module of TSL3108, for the use of students of PPG TESL Sem 4 Ambilan Khas Feb 2013, IPTHO.

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  2. TASK: Briefly describe one guided noticing activity which is practical for your pupils in your ESL classroom.

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    1. Activity: Identifying and classifying Article a/an
      Class: Year 2

      Firstly I will explain Article a/an is used before singular countable nouns. A is used with nouns that begin with a consonant sound such as `a book`. An is used with nouns that begin with a vowel sound such as `an egg`. I am teaching level 1 student so I need to explain the details about this topic to recall my pupils previous knowledge.
      Secondly, I will show a (1-10) pictures to my pupils. I will guide them to study the picture and ask them to write on the blackboard for each picture used article a or an.
      Quizzes and drills also can be done using this activities.
      Maria bt Zainal.PPG Tesl 4.

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    2. Askum teacher Maria,
      I like your idea of acknowledging on how to identify and classify articles. I want to share an activity with you sis if I may. I initially will introduces a memory game here. Its a simple activity but very effective to help our pupils learning and mastering the article items. The game is played by the pupils after a demonstration by the teacher. It goes like this:
      1. Prepare a set of cards consist of colourful and attractive pictures of objects and word cards that displayed articles a, an and the.
      2. Put and arrange the picture cards upside-down on the floor.
      3. Put the article cards on the floor by a logically distance.
      4. Pupils take turn to find a matching article item and picture stimulus by running fort and back.
      5. The correct matching is to be put in a special basket where another team player read it out loud.
      6. The pupils carry out the game in groups and take turns for all the station.
      7. The faster group completing the task win.

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  3. Activity: Identifying and classifying singular nouns and plural nouns
    Class : year 4

    In this activity, I will instruct my pupils to draw a table for singular nouns and plural nouns. Then the pupils will listen to a text read by me. While reading the text, the pupils will identify the singular and plural nouns used in the text. The pupils will write the nouns in their books in a form of list. Then, the pupils will classify the nouns in the table made by them. They also required to change the form the singular nouns to plural nouns and the plural nouns to singular nouns. This activity can be done either individually or in pair.

    Mohd Nizam Bin Mohamed

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    1. I agree with Nizam's statement. At the same time i would share different ways to teach singular and plural nouns.

      There are many different ways singular and plural can be introduced to students. It would be beneficial to know if you were talking about nouns or verbs, but both can be addressed.

      One wonderful way to introduce the concept of singular and plural is to use cross-curricular ideas. Given that they have already studied addition facts, they are already familiar with singular and plural. Therefore, to introduce singular and plural (in regards to nouns) use concrete objects. For example, you could use animal figures (a staple in the elementary classroom) to have them identify a singular noun (one) and add to the initial animal to introduce plural.

      When discussing verbs, a much harder concept, I have always used the "s" rule. Singular nouns do not have an "s";therefore, the verb that they carry does. Plural nouns have an "s," but their verbs do not.


      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl Sem 4

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    2. Yes Mr.Ganesan i would rather like the method you mentioned. Maybe in my follow up T&L process i would try this kind of method. Thanks.

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    1. Activity : Define and identify adjectives
      Year : 4

      In the beginning of the lesson, i introduce adjectives to the students by having them think of three words that describe a puppy and an elephant. Let a few pupils go in front of the class and write them on the board. Most of these will be adjectives.
      (Ex. soft,cute,large,grey). I also will explain the definitions of adjectives and the articles to pupils.Than i will gives them 3 examples of sentences and instruct the students to identify the adjectives.

      Example 1:
      "On a warm, sunny day, Alex swam in the cold, blue lake.
      (warm and sunny describes day; the, cold, blue describes lake.)

      Example 2:
      "The smiling girl ran to the biggest dog.
      (smiling tells what kind of girl; the biggest describes dog.)

      Example 3:
      "Mr. Smith bought four red apples, three oranges, and two ripe bananas."
      (four, red tells what kind of apple; three tells how many oranges, and two, ripe tells what kind of bananas.)

      At last i will checks their knowledge based on the skill by giving them some gap activities.

      Uma Mageswari D/O Balakrishnan
      TESL (Sem 4)

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  5. I would say the best guided noticing activity that is really practical and effective in my lessons is brainstorming especially for my year 6 pupils. The activity help my pupils to be extra active in the discussion as to prepare them for a better writing content. In a way my pupils get to know new vocabularies and the usage grammar items provided as my guided points.

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  6. As for my Year 1 and 2 pupils, I would use activities that developed the pupils thinking skills and effective for the lesson. Other than that, I can use activities that will involve all of the pupils in the classroom. Pupils in Phase 1 like enjoyable and attractive activities. So that, it is suitable for me to use song, jazz chant or act it out.

    Year 1
    Prepositions
    1) on
    2) in
    3) under

    As for the beginning, I will use a song ( Tune : The Farmer In The Dell )
    Teacher and pupils will sing the song and act it out.

    The ball is on the chair (2x)
    Heigh-ho, the derry - o .
    The ball is on the chair

    * The book is in the bag.
    * The pen in under the desk.

    As for the prepositions worksheets, I can use varieties of activities such as rebus writing, gaps or fill in the blanks.
    Excellent pupils will have to fill in gaps.
    Intermediate pupils would be given rebus writing or guided fill in the blanks.

    Recently, I have already try this method to my LINUS pupils in the classroom, and they can answer my 'wh' questions well. I hope I would learn more interesting and attractive activities for teaching grammar and writing in the future to increase my knowledge. ;)

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    1. Hi Herda, here i would like to share some of my teaching techniques with you. First of all, we can Introduce the prepositions using Picture, e.g.
      - The butterfly is above the clouds.
      - The rabbit is beside the house.
      - The airplane is below the clouds.
      - The airplane is between the helicopter and the butterfly.

      Other than that, we also can show pupils a composite picture (or use PowerPoint slide). Lead pupils to talk about the picture using the prepositions. We also can distribute task sheet. Pupils fill in the blanks based on the picture clues to solve the puzzle.

      I think these kinds of activities will heip our pupils can easily understand well the prepositions.

      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl Sem 4.

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    2. Hi,Ganesan..
      Thank you for your suggestion. Later on, I will try to implement it in my lesson ;)

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    3. Allo Gan, (Indo Style of saying hallo)

      For me using pictures for teaching prepositions of lower level pupils is a must. As usual you will show the prepositions used in the lesson. Then show examples of sentence based on picture stimulus. Then, I would like to suggest two types of activity that I done mostly in teaching prepositions.
      1. I will either draw pictures and pupils will construct sentences based on the pictures or the pupils draw the picture and construct the sentences themselves. Rarely I provide too much worksheet in teaching prepositions because I think the pupils will gain more by drawing the picture instead of providing the picture to them but...giving worksheet to them isn't wrong either.
      2. I would like the pupils themselves to test their friends orally. They will choose an item and put it as example in the bag, on the desk, under the desk, in their pocket. Then their friends will construct the sentence orally. This could be a kind of games for them to play and learn.

      Mohd Nizam
      PPG TESL Sem 4

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    4. Hi Herda,
      That's a good idea and lyrics that might being practice for level 1 student. They must have fun and enjoy learning. When i'm teaching year 1 and year 2 student i will enjoy with them when do the action song.They can memorize the preposition in fun learning.Good job teacher.

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  7. I teach Year One pupils for 11 year since I posted in 2002. I had problems in teaching grammar to them because they are really new and lack of vocabularies. I solve the problems by "make" teaching and learning session happening with a lots of game and teaching aids.
    I also need to have lots of approaches to teaching grammar. First of all I need to bear in mind that for lots of my pupils the grammar lessons will only become useful once they have been repeated and renewed several times over a few years and they will be forgotten or confused several times in between.
    Written by: Md Fadzlillah bin Rozali

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    1. Cikgu Fadhli Rozali,

      As you have mention above, you have experience in teaching Year 1 for almost 11 year so I'm very sure you have plenty of activity to be done with your pupils in the classroom. That why, you said that you solved the problems by making the lesson happening with lots of game and teaching aids.
      In my opinion, we have to drill our pupils with exercises too. There are many kinds of interesting activity that we as a teacher can do with our pupils in the classroom which would attract their attention to learn and memorize new vocabularies.

      Example exercises for Year 1 :
      1 - Fill in the blanks using clues or objects from the table.
      - Pupils have to write the answers by referring to the clues provided.
      2 - Rebus writing ( replace the picture with correct words )
      - Pupils love to see pictures and they easily can learn new vocabulary from pictures.
      3 - Bingo games.
      - Pupils have to ask their friends to give answers for each picture provide.
      - They will walk around the classroom to ask their friends to give answers and they also have to write their friend’s name as the person who had already answered.
      - 1 pupil can only answer 1 question.
      - Pupils who get to cross 5 answers quickly as the first person will be reward.

      So, I think these are some of the drilling activities that we as a teacher can implement during our lesson. I hope that our pupils can learn effectively after this.

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    2. Thank you for your comments and suggestions. I'll try to apply them in my class.

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  8. I've been teaching for more than 10 years now, but I still find that it is very difficult to teach grammar especially for the weak students, and I've spent "more time" with them compare to the good students.
    What I found from teaching these two different groups (KBSR vs KSSR) is that kids who experience KBSR are better in constructing sentences.This is my personal experience dealing with KBSR and KSSR students. The KSSR kids are very good in pronouncing words as they are exposed to learning of phonemes. Examples of teaching grammar for the weak students:

    Year 3:
    Topic: Nouns (common/ proper)

    I briefly explain to them what are the nouns and show them the subtitution table;

    common <------------> proper
    1. boy (people) Johnny
    2. school (place) SK Sri Murni
    3. cat (animal) Comel
    4. team (thing) JDT

    I explain to them that common nouns are words given to category of people, places or things and and don't need capital letter.
    Common nouns begin with a small letter while proper nouns begin with capital letter even they are not the first word in the sentence.

    Students know many words that are nouns. They do not know the definition or categories of nouns. Teacher and student learning activities
    Hang up a large wall chart, titled “Nouns,” with labeled columns for the categories “People,” “Places,” and “Things”.
    Point to the information written on the board and remind students that nouns are naming words.

    The next day, have students complete a written assessment, with a list of ten words, six of which are nouns (boy, tomato, Penang, Mr. Muthu, football, town) and four of which are not nouns (sing, the, pretty, quickly). Students will write “yes” or “no” on the line beside each word to indicate whether the word is or is not a noun.

    Next lesson:
    Have the student draw and name pictures of the places, people, and things, instead of writing a list of words.

    I really hope that I can learn more and gain more information on how to improve myself in teaching grammar to the weak students effectively.

    FAERAWATI BINTI YUSOF@RAMLI
    (TESL Sem.4)

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    1. In my experience, grammar shouldn’t be taught “by the book”. At least not in teaching English as a second language. That’s not what students are there for. They don't want to know all of these rules; they’re not interested in them. They want to learn English. They want to speak, read, and write in English. So, how do we as ESL teachers teach them essential grammar and give them what we need, rather than boring them to death with “the rules”. It’s actually quite simple: by teaching grammar in context. And in fun ways.

      Let’s move on to some techniques.

      Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts.
      •Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that are relevant to the immediate communication task.
      •Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.
      •Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both. The goal is to facilitate understanding.
      •Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited.
      •Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.
      Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to the point of the lesson.
      •Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary.
      •Teach the regular -ed form with its two pronunciation variants
      •Teach the doubling rule for verbs that end in d (for example, wed-wedded)
      •Hand out a list of irregular verbs that students must memorize
      •Do pattern practice drills for -ed
      •Do substitution drills for irregular verbs

      Teachers can use error correction to support language acquisition, and avoid using it in ways that undermine students' desire to communicate in the language, by taking cues from context.
      •When students are doing structured output activities that focus on development of new language skills, use error correction to guide them.


      Example:
      Student (in class): I buy a new car yesterday.
      Teacher: You bought a new car yesterday. Remember, the past tense of buy is bought.
      •When students are engaged in communicative activities, correct errors only if they interfere with comprehensibility. Respond using correct forms, but without stressing them.


      Example:
      Student (greeting teacher) : I buy a new car yesterday!
      Teacher: You bought a new car? That's exciting! What kind?

      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl Sem 4

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  9. Wan Radziah Wan Ibrahim
    TESL 4
    Activity : Identifying and Grouping the Countable and Uncountable Nouns
    Class : Year 4

    For the introduction stage, I bring real food to the classroom because my pupils are weak. I show the food such as apples and sugar. The pupils name the food and i ask if they can count the food. Then teacher explains the Countable and Uncountable nouns to the pup[ls.
    Then I refer to the text book and ask pupils to read the nouns in the book. After that I take out the word cards with the nouns on it. jumble the word cards on the table then ask the pupils to group the nouns. I write the categories on the blackboard. They do the activites in group.
    From the activites they have fun and can identify and group the nouns correctly.
    By : Wan Radziah Wan ibrahim

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    1. Askm Kak Wan....
      Basically I agreed with your approaches but I suggest you bring in more real example of countable and uncountable items. Don't just bring in food item instead you can bring in other item also so that your weak pupils can see more example. Let them play with the items as you explain why are they categorize as such. They will surely use their senses at maximum to gain more understanding of the grammar item learned. You could also make it even interesting by playing a guessing game. Hide all the BBM in boxes. As i said, you can ask the pupils to use their sense of smell, touch, hear and even taste. If you want to use the sense of seeing, you can ask them to guess by displaying a part of the item hide.
      I've tried it several times and it worked like charm. My pupils enjoyed and learned to be more optimistic plus being alert at all time. Then only I used word cards or sentence strips in my lesson..... I prepared an achievement charts for my pupils..... individual and grouping achievements are recorded to be fed with rewards by weeks or by months. My pupils challenge themselves almost every lessons.... I can see also those who were a bit better shared and taught their fellow group mates.You should try.....

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    2. Thank you for the comment, Azlima. I will try the method that you suggested.

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  10. It is used extensively in the English language and will allow students to create simple sentences with the vocabulary they have learned to date.

    For this first lesson, it is best to focus on only the I, You, He/She/It structures which you can build upon in later classes. If students have not really done a lot of activities with the words he, she, and it, you may want to consider simply using names in the practice activities. Once you have determined what you would like to cover in the first lesson, use the warm up activity to review the vocabulary students will need later on in the lesson. A short simple drill activity would be ideal.

    During the introduction section of your lesson, introduce any new vocabulary you plan to use in this lesson. Some emotions and adjectives would be good because students will then be able to form complete meaningful sentences. Introduce words such as happy and sad if students have not yet learned them. Use flashcards to drill vocabulary and have students complete some simple worksheet activities for further practice.

    Show students how to make sentences such as “I am happy. You are happy. Jenny is happy.” Ensure that students understand how the subject and forms of the verb are paired. You can practice this before introducing the full sentence structure you would like students to learn. Call on students to make sentences choosing a subject, verb, and adjective from columns on the board. Without introducing the question form “Is she happy?” you can use such questions to test comprehension and students should understand what you are asking. Have them answer by saying “Yes, she is happy.” so that they continue to practice saying the target structure.

    Have students complete a fill in the blank exercise where they must choose am, is, or are to complete sentences to ensure that they understand which form of the verb agrees with certain subjects.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG TESL
    SEM 4

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  11. Teaching Prepositions with TPR

    Total Physical Response is a teaching technique that uses physical action to assist in language learning. Dr. James J. Asher, the original developer of TPR, based the technique on the premise that humans have a natural aptitude for language acquisition. Language instructors have used TPR for learners of multiple ages and aptitudes, and proponents claim it is effective in teaching grammar because it creates a low-stress environment that encourages rapid learning and longterm retention.
    Find out what students already know. Ask for examples of prepositions. Question students about the location of various objects in the room. For instance, ask, "Where is the clock?" or "Where is my attendance book?"

    List common prepositions on the chalkboard. Explain and demonstrate each. For example, stand on the desk and exclaim, "I am on the desk and above the floor." Express various possible relationships. Say, for instance, "The desk is under my feet."

    Get the students moving. Give various commands that require them to demonstrate understanding of the prepositions with their bodies. Example commands include: "Hold the pencil below your knees," "Stand near the door," and "Put the book under a chair."

    Describe an illustration or photograph for the students to draw. Use prepositions to describe the placement of objects in the scene. When the students finish drawing, compare the original picture with the students' results.

    Require students to explain a concept or relate a short narrative. Have them, for example, explain how an appliance works, or describe a family tradition. Focus on the students' use of prepositions to check for accuracy in form and meaning.

    Arrange the furniture and props in the classroom before the lesson so you can use a variety of prepositions when moving students around.

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  12. Nouns (singular and plural)
    1. teacher explain from the given notes (in a table)

    2.Example (1)
    a) helmet - helmets
    b) towel - towels

    3. Example (2):
    adding ____es (to words that end in ___ss,____ch,__sh,___x
    - dress = dresses
    -watch = watches
    -sash = sashes
    -box = boxes

    4. Example (3)
    changing __f and __fe into ___ves
    -scarf = scarves
    -thief = thieves

    5. Example (4)
    changing __y into __ies
    -hobby = hobbies
    -lorry = lorries

    then pupils will have to complete the table with singular and plural nouns


    SINGULAR PLURAL
    1. Baby
    2. Turtles
    3. Housefly
    4. Tomato
    5. Hats
    6. Knives



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  13. hello friends,for me in my class I often used simpler activity since that im teaching behind class...
    to suit with my pupils ability I normally ask my pupils to underlines the correct answer from the two answers given.

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  14. hi perlyn..seems that the activities that you applied to your pupils look simple and comprehensible...I will try to apply the activities with my pupils after this..thank you.

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  15. activity : identifing adjectives
    year 5

    for this activity , as the set induction, I will take a pupil to be my model as we can get a lot of adjectives from a model. I ask the pupils what they can describe about their friend.then ask them to list out the adjectives. the pupils will say the words guided by teacher. then , i will introduce other adjectives that i want focus for that day. i like to use flash card because they can see and more understand about the lesson. after drilling, pupils will match the words with correct picture of adjectives. as the summing up, pupils read again the adjectives.

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  16. Activity : Articles
    Year 2

    In this activity, A or an?
    This activity works great with beginners, including small children. Cut up a list of several words that either take “a” or “an” and mix them up. For very young learners, you may use pictures instead of words. Then divide students into pairs of groups, and have them put the words in two piles, depending on the article. Once they have their piles ready, ask them if they can figure out the rule by themselves.

    By far the best ways to teach any type of grammar is through the use of either realia or real life settings and contexts. Why would a student be motivated to learn the conditional tenses if he has no idea why he’s learning them, in other words, he doesn't understand when and where he'll have use for them? When teachers use real life settings and objects students will know the grammar structures they learn will be useful for them.

    Rosnita binti Ab. Rahman
    Tesl
    Sem 4

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  17. Hi kak Nita,
    I agreed with your activities,but for me to suit with my behind year 3 class..according to teach adjective these are the steps i applied.

    step 1.
    1.Teacher use story.
    2.Words in adjectives been highlighted.
    step 2.
    1.After talk about the story,teacher pate the sentence strips taken from the story on the blackboard.
    2.Pupils in group read and representative from each group come in front and circle the adjectives in the sentence.
    3.the group with correct answer awarded by teacher.
    step 3
    1.teacher explains about adjectives in the story.
    2.teacher gives worksheet and pupils find the adjectives words in the crossword puzzle.

    pupils from behind class only could pay attention and showing their interest towards lesson for only first 20 mins.So teacher needs to prepare them with activites.thank you.

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