Sunday, June 15, 2014

PPG- Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3093) - Topic 2













































































26 comments :

  1. The information on the slides is obtained from the PPG Module of TSL3093-Managing the Primary ESL Classroom, solely for the use of PPG students of Sem 5, Ambilan Khas Feb 2013)

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  2. Dear teachers,
    Write your answer for the above task here.

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  3. As a teacher, we must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom management decisions and strategies you may wish to implement. Let’s take a look at three such management approaches: the self-discipline approach, the instructional approach, and the desist approach. These three approaches to classroom management form a continuum, from the self-discipline approach at one extreme, to the instructional approach, to the desist approach at the opposite extreme. But I’m using behaviorism theory in the classroom.

    Behavior Modification
    Behavior modification, based on the ideas and work of B. F. Skinner (1968, 1971), is an approach that evolves from the assumptions that students will change their behavior to receive definite rewards.
    The basic premise of behavior modification is that student behavior can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions and behaviors. Technically, reinforcement principles are used systematically for changing some aspect of educational practice or student behavior. Students who follow established procedures, who follow the rules, or who perform well on required work are given reinforcers, or rewards. The reinforcers may be teacher praise, good grades, or even such tangible items as stickers or appropriate free movies. Students who do not follow the procedures, who misbehave, or who perform poorly are denied desired rewards or are punished in some way.
    Basically, there are four general categories of consequences that can follow students’ actions: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, Punishment I, and Punishment II. As noted earlier, positive and negative reinforcement are used for maintaining or increasing the occurrence of a desired student behavior. In the case of positive reinforcement, a reward (e.g., praise, grades, or free time) is presented for desired behavior, whereas negative reinforcement involves the removal of an undesired stimulus (e.g., weekend homework, no visiting, or a change in the seating arrangement).
    Inappropriate student actions can be discouraged through the use of punishment. Like reinforcement, punishment comes in two categories, simply labeled I and II. Punishment I, the most commonly used form, involves the application of some undesirable stimulus. For example, undesirable student action can be followed by a private reprimand, isolation, or a trip to the principal’s office. In contrast, Punishment II involves the removal of a desired stimulus or the withholding of an anticipated positive stimulus. For example, inappropriate student behavior could be followed by a loss of free time, exclusion from a school film, or loss of computer time for a week. If used appropriately, both Punishments I and II should result in the elimination of, or at least a decrease in, undesired student behaviors.
    Reinforcement can also be a complex system. For example, one such program is the token reinforcement system, in which students earn tokens for both positive classroom behaviors and academic work. The tokens earned are then periodically exchanged for some desired activity or reward.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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    1. hi ganesh... let me share this method to you...
      Community/ Sharing Circle
      During community or sharing circles, the students will sit in their assigned order in the circle. The students will be given a seating order for sharing circle at the beginning of the year so that they each know where to sit during each sharing time. By having an assigned seating circle, students will not argue over seats and behavior issues will be eliminated. The students who are disruptive will be placed next to the teacher to prevent interruptions for other students. If there are behavior problems of any kind, the seating chart can reflect the best placements for each student. When it is time for the sharing circle, the first student in the circle will push in his or her chair and go to the correct spot in the circle and then the rest will following when it is their turn. The sharing circle-seating chart will be posted so that all students can use the chart to clarify their position if there are any problems remembering. The students will raise their hands when they have something to share, and will be unable to share if they shout out or interrupt others. When sharing circle is over, the students will return to their seats quietly. These routines are important so that there are no interruptions, and so that the students can quickly get to their spots in the circle without confusion and conflicts over where to sit. The lesson will then be able to begin on time and the students will be ready to go.

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  4. Assertive Discipline
    Lee and Marlene Canter (1976) contend that teachers have a basic right to teach and students have the right to learn in a well-disciplined classroom. To this end, the Canters advocate assertive discipline, which calls for assertive teachers who clearly and firmly communicate needs and requirements to students, follow up their words with appropriate actions, and respond to students in ways that maximize compliance but in no way violate the best interest of the students (Canter & Canter, 1976, p. 9). Assertive teachers take charge in the classroom in a calm yet forceful way.
    Assertive teachers do not tolerate improper behavior that interrupts learning. Commonly used excuses-peer pressure, home environment, and heredity, for example-are not accepted for misbehavior. The assertive teacher establishes rules and limits for behavior, along with consequences for proper behavior and improper behavior. Students who follow the established rules receive positive consequences, such as a material reward, free time, or special privileges, whereas students who break the rules receive negative consequences, such as detention, giving up part of their lunch period, staying after school, or going to the principal’s office. The rules, limits, and consequences are communicated to students and parents in clear terms at the beginning of the year.
    Assertive teachers insist on decent, responsible behavior from their students. After establishing expectations early in the year, assertive teachers consistently reinforce the established procedures and guidelines. They do not threaten to enforce the rules and guidelines and apply the consequences to misbehavior; they promise to do so. It is assumed that all students, if they want, are capable of behaving; it is a matter of choice.


    Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Sem 5

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    1. Hi Uma here I would like to share the classroom management and the approaches that need for a teacher in the ESL classroom.

      Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities
      • Establish rules and procedures early
      • State expectations clearly
      • Focus on positive expectations
      • Practice "positive" behavior
      • Establish group cohesiveness and responsibility
      • Establish cues
      • Model appropriate behavior
      • Establish consequences

      1. reinforcers (Premack principle)
      2. punishers
      • Establish method of delivering reinforcers
      1. Token reinforcement programs
      2. Contingency contract programs
      3. Self-management

      Monitor Student Behavior
      • Physical layout: ability to see all students
      • Teacher movement: move around the room
      • Group focus: keep students involved
      • Overlapping: ability to supervise several activities at once
      • Withitness: communicate to students you are aware of what's happening
      • Pacing/movement management: keep lessons and students moving

      Reinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior
      • Anticipate occurrence of positive and inappropriate behavior
      • Hold students accountable
      • Provide specific feedback regarding behavior and expectations
      • Focus on positive behavior; teacher attention to inappropriate behavior can be reinforcing
      • Effective praise will:
      1. be contingent on display of positive behavior
      2. specify clearly the behaviors being reinforced
      3. be believable by the student
      • Methods of coping with inappropriate behavior:
      1. Negative reinforcement focus on behaviors to be increased
      2. Satiation: have student(s) continue behavior until tired of it
      3. Punishment: deliver negative consequences when inappropriate behavior occurs; does not necessarily lead to positive behavior

      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl
      Sem 5

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    2. Thanks for the sharing Mr.Ganesan. Still there are some other supportive theories and approaches also which could help us to promote an effective classroom management.

      Responsible Behaviors Intentionally Taught
      The following list presents behaviors that teachers can teach intentionally to help create a supportive classroom environment. Teachers can partner with school psychologists, counselors, and parents to present a multifaceted approach for all students, and especially for certain students that need more intensive intervention.
      • Character development
      • Communication skills
      • Social skills
      • Anger management
      • Conflict resolution
      • Responsibility for ones’ actions
      • Self-control skills
      • Decision-making skills
      • Emotional intelligence development

      Establishing Classroom Harmony
      The second supportive option focuses on establishing a warm, supportive environment that has
      everyone feeling they are an important part of the class. The feelings of “our class” and the “learning community” are created through class building activities, team building activities, and class meetings. When students perceive that they are valued by teachers and other students, included in classroom activities, accepted in their classroom and school, have a sense of belonging to cooperative groups, and are listened to and encouraged by the adults in their lives, they develop respect for themselves and the authority figures in their lives.
      • Valued
      • Included
      • Accepted
      • Belonging
      • Listened to
      • Encouraged

      So i hope you could have it as your guidance in future.
      Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
      PPG TESL
      Semester 5

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    3. Hi Uma,
      Thank you for explaining about the assertive discipline briefly. I wonder do you use this discipline in your lessons? As a teacher, we must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom management decisions and strategies we may wish to implement. We know that there are three such management approaches: the self-discipline approach, the instructional approach, and the desist approach. These three approaches to classroom management form a continuum, from the self-discipline approach at one extreme, to the instructional approach, to the desist approach at the opposite extreme.
      Based on my experiences, tolerating improper behavior sometimes bring positive outcomes. Teachers are models, idols and also examples for the pupils to follow. Reinforcing the established procedures and guidelines can be done in many ways. In order to be an assertive discipliner, a teacher can really practices established rules if he or she is assigned to be the class teacher. As a class teacher lots of classroom management can be done to the fullest. The decorations that relate to the daily lessons and throughout the year round.

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    4. Hi Uma,

      Discipline is a must in classroom management but, to do something too extreme is not good either. For me I want the pupils to like me. I want them to play around with me sometimes. On the other hand, rules and procedures that I set for them will tell them that there are limits in everything. If the teacher being able to stick with the rules and procedures, classroom management will flow harmoniously during any lesson.

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    5. yes i agree with you nizam, discipline is very important.
      Effective classroom management is being to implement and maintain classroom discipline in an effective manner. here are the things that you can do as a teacher or leader to help maintain discipline and management in your classroom:
      -Have rules
      -Have expectations
      -Make students aware of the rules
      -Make the rules known to parents as well
      -Review rules regularly
      -Be firm and consistent
      -Be professional
      -Have a printed packet
      -Deal with troublemakers

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  5. Albert and Troutman (1986) emphasized that the ability of teachers to provide a conducive environment for learning by cooperatively managing time, space, resources and pupils roles and behaviours is the essence of classroom management.
    I personally agreed strongly to the statement above. As a teacher, I must equips myself with the knowledge and skills of learning strategies, techniques of disciplining, methods of assuring progression for events planned and mastering instructional techniques for good behaviours among the pupils. In order to that, I must recognise options, make decisions and take actions based on my observations, studies and instinct-based . I always ask myself this question; “what do these pupils need and how can I meet those needs.” Acknowledging that these magnificent young pupils with exciting and formulating minds need lessons that will arouse their natural curiosity and provoke critical thinking skills, I need to develop and implement pedagogy that honors them, recognizes their abilities, and challenges their constantly growing minds. There is no greater honor than to help another individual come to a realization of their unique and natural talents—to facilitate another’s blossoming in this world and to bring them to an awareness of their place in this world of endless knowledge. It is my role and daily challenge to devise relevant and engaging lesson plans that help to create thinkers and problem solvers, so that when problems do arise, the pupils themselves can devise the solution. The goal is to create loving and caring individuals who take risks, establish realistic goals and assume personal responsibility for the results of their behavior; where the only competition is with themselves and where the process is about discovering ideas and not about material.
    Kohn’s theories on classroom management are quite similar to Glasser’s. Grades and praise, Kohn says, kills intrinsic motivation and the desire to learn, and this concept is, of course, antithetical to what we’ve always been taught. The punishment/praise grade system that we were all indoctrinated in explains why the system has failed so many pupils as the competition norms of most classrooms indicates that for every winner/top of the class, there will be thirty-nine losers dealing with the inherent self-esteem issues surrounding their constant failure.

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  6. According to Kohn and Glasser, instead of focusing on grades and tests, we must help our students to reason, to comunicate, and help them develop social and personal responsibility, self-awareness and a capacity for leadership. Thinking deeply and critically should be the first goal of education, the second goal is the desire for more education and a lifelong affair with learning. Kohn and Glasser’s theories are both non-coercive, but most importantly their theories are based on existentialist ideals of free choice and responsibility. Kounin’s theories, however, take a completely different approach, where his practical and hands-on philosophy proves to be an excellent addition to the holistic theories of Kohn and Glasser. I implement this approach in my classroom management. I ask the pupils to help make or put up the decorations I’ve prepared. I purposely did only a few sample of decoration items and when my pupils found that the items were not enough, they volunteered to do extra at home/in class.
    Kohn posits that letter grades damage students’ self-esteem, as grades do not evaluate for deeper levels of understanding. Therefore, instead of grades, I would use non-traditional means of assessment such as portfolios, performance assessment and group work assessments. Another form of assessment that I would use in my classroom would be pupils self-evaluation. These types of assessment proven work to enhance the pupils’ learning, self-esteem and academic success as this approach is also proactive, pupils-centered and non-competitive. My classroom is heavily decorated with pupils’ works covering every piece of available wall spaces. Poems, inspirational sayings, papers, artwork, pupils’ paintings and drawings of characters from literary works, adorn the walls. The chairs are in the perimeter of the class, so pupils can engage in group activities easily.
    My class is always noisy and creative, the pupils are engaged, excited and stimulated by the subject matter, everyone is having fun and there are no discipline problems. The pupils are learning important lessons like how to perform in front of audience; how to deliver a speech; how to give a dramatic presentation; and how to read poetry aloud. They are also learning how to do a close reading, reading for comprehension, literary devices like theme. However, they are also making connections to their own lives. I noticed that they are finding the lesson applicable and relevant and can easily understand the ideas contained in the lesson. My pupils are allowed to walk around the classroom freely during my lessons but with reasonable reasons. This is a creative, noisy learning environment with pupils who are engaged in fun and exciting class time. Absenteeism is practically non-existent, with pupils absent only due to illness. When my pupils are working in groups, I walk around the class checking on each of them and try my very best to attract attention to whomever needs it. All the pupils receive adequate and equal attention from me. This is a trusting, safe learning environment where risks are taken and where intellectual boundaries are constantly pushed. Problems are dealt with easily and effectively, with inattention solved immediately with heavy eye contact or close proximity to the offending pupils. This is a fun atmosphere, while at the same time stimulating and challenging.

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  7. The Instructional Approach
    The premise that forms the basis for the instructional approach to classroom management is that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems. The assumption is that students will not engage in disruptive behavior when well-planned and well-implemented lessons engage students in the learning process with activities that meet their interests, needs, and abilities. Let’s now look at two models of classroom management that focus on the principles of the instructional approach.
    The Kounin Model
    In a comprehensive comparison of effective and ineffective classroom managers, Jacob Kounin (1970) found that the teachers differed very little in the way they handled classroom problems once they arose. The primary difference was in the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom problems. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment; they kept students actively engated; and they conducted well-planned lessons with smooth transitions. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom managers because of skill in four areas: “withitness,” overlapping activities, group focusing, and movement management (Charles, 2002).
    Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times; nothing is missed. “Withit” teachers respond immediately to student misbehavior and know who started what. A major component of withitness is scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual students, and having eyes in the back your head. “Withit” teachers don’t make timing errors (waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for misbehavior). “Withit” teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the instigator is in a problem situation.
    Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. Overlapping means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time. Essentially, it is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small group on task, for example, while also helping other students with their seatwork.
    Finally, Kounin notes that successful classroom management also depends on movement management and group focus—that is, the ability to make smooth lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all students in a lesson. Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity to another. They keep students alert by holding their attention, by holding them accountable, and by involving all students in the lesson.

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  8. Congruent Communications

    As a teacher, to be able to communicate with my pupils in any circumstances id really important. By communicating with the pupils I can keep the pupils active, effective and motivated throughout the whole lesson. I want my pupils to be able to speak to me freely but meaningfully. If i am able to make the pupils to interact with me actively, the lesson will be more worthwhile.

    Pupils needed to express their feelings during lesson. Being able to let them to express themselves is far better than asking them to sit and be quiet during the whole lesson. This theory also told that to keep the communications open, harmonious and the pupils must have the sense of respect. To do this, I have to set some procedures for the pupils so that the whole process of learning will be meaningful. To use praise to be less critical to the pupils will earn yourself as a teacher respect from the pupils. Pupils will also feel motivated if they were praised by their teacher.

    By doing this the the teacher can promote self discipline to the pupils. I believe that a good teacher should be able to control himself while communicating with the pupils. Haim Ginot theory truly teaches teacher to be a better teacher and a better speaker.

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    1. Hi Nizam, I agree with your methods in using Congruent Communication. By using this theory, we can create cooperative learning between teacher and pupils too. Teacher can use the discipline methods in other way to exchange with the punishment way. Pupils will be much motivated and they will be eager to complete their task because of the use of discipline in the classroom. As a teacher also we should respect the pupils needs in the classroom and teacher are not suit to label their pupils.

      We also have to accept the pupils comments in a way to attract the pupils in the classroom. Haim Ginot also did mention that teacher have to avoid hurried help to the pupils as the pupils can try to complete the task on their own. In order to correct the pupils' mistake we can use simple directions to the pupils to gain the knowledge. We can easily use this theory incorporated into other methods and develop the pupils understanding in the classroom.

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  9. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  10. There are many types of communication needed to bridge the two-way gap between students and teachers. I would use Congruent Communication because it relate to the behaviour of each two sides.

    Classroom Rules and Consequences - Classroom rules should incorporate the school rules and outcomes. The focus should be on creating on task student behavior and creating student expectations that are positive and proactive. Include celebrations and external rewards for weekly or monthly positive classroom engagement. A wall chart with stars or facial expressions with student created name tags can provide a visual of where each student is in being on task in the classroom.

    Classroom Arrangement - The classroom arrangement must be conducive to learning and student engagement. I have to remember to include students with IEPs and disabilities in creating classroom arrangements that provide visuals of the board and that have working space beyond the student's desk for those group projects and presentations. Other than that I need to ensure the supplies should be readily available along with reading nooks and quiet spaces for students who may need a break from the group arrangement.

    Classroom Safety - Teachers and students must be safe in the classroom. The classroom should be a place of wellness, caring, student engagement and trust. Everyone must be committed to maintaining the emotional and physical stability of the classroom at all times and have emergency protocol in place in case of a classroom emergency.

    Classroom Environment - I have more of an interactive style of instruction, my physical environment might have desks or tables arranged in group settings in order to provide more collaborative opportunities for students to do group work, peer review or academic processing of subject content.

    Relationships and Management - The teacher/student teamwork in developing the plan must include rules and consequences for breaking the rules. Accountability for expected behavior must be the outcome of any plan that provides effective classroom management.

    By incorporating all of the above categories in my classroom management plan, I can create a final product that says win-win for both teacher and students.

    HERDAYATI BINTI ABDUL AZIZ
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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    1. Herda,
      Thank you for sharing the types of classroom management that I must monitoring in my class.Sometimes I am busy to focus in classroom arrangement during my lesson. I will keep doing include students with IEPs and disabilities in creating classroom arrangements that provide visuals of the board and that have working space beyond the student's desk for those group projects and presentations. I forgot to focusing in classroom environment. Interactive style of instruction, my physical environment might have desks or tables arranged in group settings in order to provide more collaborative opportunities for students to do group work, peer review or academic processing of subject content. Important to my student to diversifying the interactive style of instruction. I will take note.
      Maria bt Zainal
      PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

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  11. Classroom management constitutes three broad dimensions; person, instruction and discipline. (Martin & Baldwin, 1992). Traditional approaches were mostly based on the behavioral principles and laws of learning. (Goffin, 1994). Evertson, Emmer, Sanford and Clements (1983) state that classroom management is broader than the notion of student discipline. It includes all the things teachers must do to enhance student involvement and cooperation in classroom tasks and to establish a productive learning environment.
    In a classroom management, I am following the Jones Model. Body language is a set of physical mannerism that tends to get pupils back to work. In my class I will move around the class to monitoring and make sure that pupils focusing in my lesson.
    Theories that I am practically use is Building The Foundation (Skinner,Glasser,Gordon). Social reinforces: facial expressions. I will smile when see my pupils submit their work early. Tangible reinforces are real objects that pupils can earn as rewards for desired behavior. I will give one week times and give some gift such as two pencils to show improvement of their behavior.
    Maria bt Zainal
    PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

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  12. As a teacher, you must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom management decisions and strategies you may wish to implement. Let’s take a look at three such management approaches: the self-discipline approach, the instructional approach, and the desist approach. These three approaches to classroom management form a continuum, from the self-discipline approach at one extreme, to the instructional approach, to the desist approach at the opposite extreme. Effective teaching necessitates making difficult and principled choices, exercising careful judgment, and honoring the complex nature of the educational mission. In addition to the technical knowledge and skills teachers have to use in their daily practice, they must also be aware of the ethical dimensions of their profession. In this light, the primary mission is to foster the development of skills, dispositions, and understanding, while acknowledging thoughtfully and responsibly a wide range of human needs and conditions. Thus, teachers must master a repertoire of instructional methods and strategies, yet remain critical and reflective about their practice. Their professional responsibilities focus on educating students, in addition to participating in wider activities within the school and in partnership with parents and the community.

    Based on the latest developments in pedagogy, teaching has become more than an activity that conserves valued knowledge and skills by transmitting them to succeeding generations. Therefore, teachers also have the responsibility to challenge existing structures, practices, and definitions of knowledge; to invent and test new approaches; and, where necessary, to pursue organizational change in a constant attempt to improve the school. As agents of the public interest in a democracy, teachers through their work contribute to the dialogue about preserving and improving society, and they initiate future citizens into this ongoing public discourse

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  13. As a teacher, you must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom management decisions and strategies you may wish to implement. Let’s take a look at three such management approaches: the self-discipline approach, the instructional approach, and the desist approach. These three approaches to classroom management form a continuum, from the self-discipline approach at one extreme, to the instructional approach, to the desist approach at the opposite extreme.
    1-Inner Discipline
    2-Beyond Discipline
    3-The Instructional Approach
    4-The Desist Approach

    A behavioral approach to classroom management focuses on establishing clear expectations for appropriate behavior, monitoring behavior, and then reinforcing appropriate behavior and redirecting inappropriate behavior. It is especially important to create the desired classroom climate during the first several weeks of the school year.

    Structuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities

    Establish rules and procedures early
    State expectations clearly
    Focus on positive expectations
    Practice "positive" behavior
    Establish group cohesiveness and responsibility
    Establish cues
    Model appropriate behavior
    Establish consequences reinforcers (Premack principle) punishers
    Establish method of delivering reinforcers
    Token reinforcement programs
    Contingency contract programs
    Self-management

    Sometimes as teachers, we get bogged down in the latest process and techniques and we can lose sight of the fact that essentially, students are people too. We are often the most important role models for our students and they learn as much from what we do as what we say. The above tips and techniques are based on the fact that we should treat our students the way we expect them to treat us.

    Classroom management techniques will differ depending on our teaching styles. Different Teaching Styles and How They Affect Your Students will give you some insight into how various teaching styles affect classroom management.

    Finally, it is also important to take your students’ emotional development into account when planning to implement classroom management techniques. The Emotional Intelligence in the Classroom course from Udemy will teach you the various phases of maturity, emotional intelligence skills for the classroom, and how to use emotional intelligence to create a classroom climate for effective teaching-and-learning to occur.

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  14. 1. Appropriate Levels of Dominance
    Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing these three principles:

    Clear behavior expectations
    Clear learning goals
    Exhibiting assertive behavior
    A. Establish Clear Expectations and Consequences
    Teachers can establish clear expectations for behavior in two ways: by establishing clear rules and procedures, and by providing consequences for student behavior. Past research has stressed the importance of establishing rules and procedures for general classroom behavior, group work, seat work, transitions and interruptions, use of materials and equipment, and beginning and ending the period or the day. Ideally, the class should establish these rules and procedures through discussion and mutual consent by teacher and students.

    Along with well-designed and clearly communicated rules and procedures, the teacher must acknowledge students’ behavior, reinforcing acceptable behavior and providing negative consequences for unacceptable behavior.

    Teachers can build effective relationships through these strategies:

    Using a wide variety of verbal and physical reactions to students’ misbehavior, such as moving closer to offending students and using a physical cue, such as a finger to the lips, to point out inappropriate behavior.
    Cuing the class about expected behaviors through prearranged signals, such as raising a hand to indicate that all students should take their seats.
    Providing tangible recognition of appropriate behavior-with tokens or rewards, for example.
    Employing group contingency policies that hold the entire group responsible for behavioral expectations.
    Employing home contingency techniques that involve rewards and sanctions at home.

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  15. B. Establish Clear Learning Goals
    Teachers can also exhibit appropriate levels of dominance by providing clarity about the content and expectations of an upcoming instructional unit. Important teacher actions to achieve this end include:

    Establishing and communicating learning goals at the beginning of a unit of instruction.
    Providing feedback on those goals.
    Continually and systematically re-visiting the goals.
    Providing summative feedback regarding the goals.
    C. Exhibit Assertive Behavior
    Teachers can also communicate appropriate levels of dominance by exhibiting assertive behavior. Assertive behavior differs significantly from both passive behavior and aggressive behavior.
    Tips to using assertive body language:

    Maintain an erect posture, facing the offending student but keeping enough distance so as not to appear threatening and matching the facial expression with the content of the message being presented to students.
    Use an appropriate tone of voice, speaking clearly and deliberately in a pitch that is slightly but not greatly elevated from normal classroom speech, avoiding any display of emotions in the voice.
    Persist until students respond with the appropriate behavior. Do not ignore inappropriate behavior; do not be diverted by a student denying, arguing, or blaming, but listen to legitimate explanations.
    2. Appropriate Levels of Cooperation
    Cooperation is characterized by a concern for the needs and opinions of others. Although not the antithesis of dominance, cooperation certainly occupies a different realm. Whereas dominance focuses on the teacher as the driving force in the classroom, cooperation focuses on the students and teacher functioning as a team. The interaction of these two dynamics-dominance and cooperation-is a central force in effective teacher-student relationships. Several strategies can foster appropriate levels of cooperation:

    Provide flexible learning goals
    Take a personal interest in students
    Use Equitable and Positive Classroom Behaviors
    A. Provide Flexible Learning Goals
    Just as teachers can communicate appropriate levels of dominance by providing clear learning goals, they can also convey appropriate levels of cooperation by providing flexible learning goals. Giving students the opportunity to set their own objectives at the beginning of a unit or asking students what they would like to learn conveys a sense of cooperation. Giving students this kind of choice, in addition to increasing their understanding of the topic, conveys the message that the teacher cares about and tries to accommodate students’ interests.

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  16. Approaches to Classroom Management

    As a teacher, you must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom management decisions and strategies you may wish to implement. Let’s take a look at three such management approaches: the self-discipline approach, the instructional approach, and the desist approach. These three approaches to classroom management form a continuum, from the self-discipline approach at one extreme, to the instructional approach, to the desist approach at the opposite extreme.
    The Self-Discipline Approach
    The self-discipline approach is built on the premise that students can be trusted to evaluate and change their actions so their behaviors are beneficial and appropriate to everyone. This democratic approach views classroom management as a function of the teacher’s ability to establish working teacher-student relationships, recognize students’dignity, and exhibit realness, trust, acceptance, and empathy. With these attitudinal qualities in mind, let’s look at four of the more democratic classroom management models.
    Reality Therapy
    Developed by William Glasser (1965, 1977, 1986), reality therapy is a strategy that helps students take responsibility for examining and solving their own problems. Glasser believes that students are rational beings who can control their behavior if they wish. For example, witness the usual good student behaviors found on the first day of school.
    Often, teachers need to help students learn to make good behavioral choices so they can become responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in the real world; they must be guided toward reality. Students are forced to acknowledge their behavior, and they should make value judgments regarding that behavior. For example, when a disruption occurs, instead of asking why students are behaving that way, teachers ask, “What are you doing?” The emphasis is put on the you so that there is no misinterpretation as to who is responsible. This question is followed up with queries such as “Is this behavior against the rules?” or “Is this behavior helping you or this class?” If the misbehavior persists, the teacher meets privately with the student to design a commitment for change. If the original plan proves inadequate, the teacher and student reexamine, renew, or revise the plan. If the disruptions continue or the commitment is not followed, the consequences should become progressively more severe: principal conference, parent conference, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, and finally permanent exclusion from school.

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  17. As a teacher, we must be aware of the principles and their consequences in classroom management decisions and the strategies that are to be implement.
    My classroom instruction is based on behaviorism theory advocated by B.F.Skinner (1968) .


    The basic premise of behavior modification is that student behavior can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions and behaviors. In my lesson, the student behaviour in the classroom is important so that they understand the lesson well. Students who have poor attention span are given more attention and this will motivate them to do well in the class.

    Reinforcement principles are used systematically for changing some aspect of educational practice or student behavior. Students who follow established procedures, who follow the rules, or who perform well on required work are given reinforcers, or rewards. Giving praises to students have motivated my students and they are elated when they are praised. The lessons are student centered and thus the students are very interested in the lesson. Stressing on the students’ disposition had been my focus in my classroom. The students are able to express and reflect on the topic and present their views. They are more interactive and thus communication is established among the peers. By moulding the behaviour of the students, lots of learning takes place in the classroom.





    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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  18. To structure a classroom so that it supports positive pupilnbehaviour teachers need to have forethought and planning. As for me, to be highly effective, I have to structure the classroom environment so that it decreases the likelihood of inappropriate pupil behaviour, increases desirable pupil interactions and set up pupils for success. Effective classroom structuring requires attention to thefollowing features that I have practised:

    # Creating a physical arrangement that eases traffic flow, minimizes distractions and provides teachers with good acesses to pupils in order to respond to their questions and better control behaviour.
    # Making effecient use of classroom time, including transitions between various classroom activities.
    # Ensuring that the nature and quality of pupil interactions is positive by clearly communicating appropriate behaviours for particular classroom activities. For example, pupils may be expected to interact with one another during cooperative learning activities but not indipendent work at their seats.

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