Wednesday, June 18, 2014

PPG - Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3093) - Topic 3





















24 comments :

  1. The information on the slides is obtained from the PPG Module of TSL3093-Managing the Primary ESL Classroom, solely for the use of PPG students of Sem 5, Ambilan Khas Feb 2013)

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  2. Dear teachers,
    Write the answers for the above tasks here.

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    3. Types of pupils’ location and grouping for storytelling and role-play
      Pupil grouping is often presented as a polemical debate between setting and mixed-
      ability teaching. The research evidence suggests that schools show a much wider range
      of grouping practices that vary with age of pupils (especially at transition into secondary
      schools) and curricular area. In addition, consideration of pupil grouping should include
      a variety of within-class groupings, and organizational and within-class grouping for both
      social and academic purposes. In order to explain evidence of associations between
      grouping, learning and social behaviour, the review suggests that school, department
      and classroom decisions regarding pupil grouping are more complex than a reflection of
      ‘seating’ arrangements. It should also be noted that within most of the existing literature
      on this subject there has been little attempt to disaggregate variables that ‘confound’
      attainment such as social class, teacher perception (of attainment), school type, etc.
      The size of classes, size of within-class groups, composition of within-class groups, nature of the assigned learning task, intended social interaction used in task completion and teacher intervention appear to be related. Planning for effective learning needs to take account of the social pedagogic relationship between these factors, especially between group size, composition and the type of learning task assigned.
      There are a few types of pupils’ location and grouping for story- telling and role play in my classroom. I normally would choose a U-shaped or horse shoe arrangements for the story telling competition. The arrangement provides ample space for the audience to stay and watch up to the end of the competition. Another setting is the Herring-Bone that’s equally fit the setting of the participants and the adjudicators. There can be a make-believe grand stage for the storytellers especially to manage a good and reasonable venue to suit the competition.

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    4. Hi Ima

      Early this year I did a role playing activity based on the Jungle Book. For this session I also used the horseshoe shape so that my pupils can do the role play with enough space. Once, the first group presented their part, I found out relocating the pupils desks and chairs into horseshoe shape have somehow create a better outcome form my pupils. They were more high spirited and more motivated to do their best. On e of my pupil even slide his body on the floor like a snake. From that day, I am used to relocating my pupils during certain activities as I know that it will give them more freedom.

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  3. STORY TELLING

    The students listen to some stories downloaded from the Internet and repeat as they listen. This gives them an opportunity to improve their pronunciation, stress and intonation. They are offered three stories each time and required to practice the one they like best. A competition is held every two weeks. When every student has learned to tell three to five stories naturally and expressively, they feel much more confident in telling stories in English than before.

    Activity

    1) Divide the students into groups and each group prepares a story.
    2) Each member of the group tells two to three sentences and the next one continues until the end of the story.
    3) The length of the story could gradually increase from two or three minutes to four or five minutes.
    4) Before the lesson, the students could divide their tasks in advance and practice their own parts.
    5) They could also be given a few minutes to practice in class the whole story if necessary.
    6) The teacher moves among the groups and chooses two or three groups to present their stories before the class.
    7) Because the students have enough time to prepare and they are working together, this helps them build confidence and create a lively and brisk atmosphere.


    ROLE PLAY

    Role play cards can be a very useful tool here. For example:-

    Student A
    You are booking into a hotel.
    Elements
    Book in to the hotel - you have a reservation.
    Complications
    You are on your own.
    You want a shower.
    You want breakfast in the morning.
    You have an early meeting and must not be late.

    Student B
    You are a hotel receptionist.
    Elements
    Welcome the guest.
    Find them a room.
    Complications
    You can't find their reservation.
    You only have a double room with bath available.

    Before asking them to perform a role play you should prepare the students by reviewing key vocabulary and asking questions. The questions should incorporate the major parts of the role play and the vocabulary/idioms involved. After the question answer session the students should be comfortable with what they need to do.

    Activity

    1) Allow them a few minutes to study the role cards and work out some key sentences.
    2) Give help where needed.
    3) Each role play should be performed at least twice with the students changing roles.
    4) In group situations have the stronger students act out the role play to the whole class.
    5) You as the teacher can take one of the roles if you need to.
    6) Avoid making corrections until the role play is finished. (Keep a note pad to remind yourself of anything that crops up, but be discreet - scribbling away furiously might put the students off.)
    7) Don't let things get out of hand. If the role play decends into a slanging match, it might be entertaining, but you really should intervene.
    8) Recording or videoing role plays can be a very useful tool for giving feedback, but only if the students are comfortable with this. (In some circumstances, parental consent may also be required.)

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  4. Storytelling
    Children love stories,they make interesting images in the minds when listening to a story. Teaching by story telling is one of the best method of teaching ,the teacher can employ in any lesson presentation.
    Activities
    Chain Sentence

    Teams of two students orally construct the first sentence of an invented story. To orally make the sentence, each says one word, trusting their ears to recognize conventional grammar, until a long sentence evolves. Shape the improve by setting the tone of the sentence. Make the first sentence of:
    • a ghost story
    • pirate story
    • love story
    • mystery
    • any story, etc.
    Beginnings:
    This exercise can be used to generate the first sentence of a Chain Story where each participant adds a section to a tale.
    Endings:
    The chain sentence exercise could generate a "last sentence." This sentence is written on a piece of paper and placed in the middle of the story circle. The game is over when the story has woven around to the point where someone can say the "last sentence."
    Role playing Activities
    Warming Up the Class
    Review and discuss with students what happened yesterday and why the teachers were so angry in the afternoon.
    Choosing the First Set of Participants
    After a few minutes of brainstorming, choose one episode of tattling that you feel is best to role play first.
    Establishing the Problem, Characters, and Setting
    Before the players can begin role playing, the characters and setting need to be described and explained to the students. Review the characters and setting with the class and make sure they know who is who is the scene and when and where it is taking place.
    Preparing the Observers
    Set the expectations for the students observing and explain what you want them to look for during the role play.
    Role Playing the First Scene
    Once the scene is set up and the characters and setting are described, let the chosen participants improvise and role-play the situation. Remind the students that the scene should reflect how they would normally react when someone tattles.
    Stopping Action for Discussion and Evaluation
    After the first solution has been acted out, stop the action to discuss what the students heard and saw in the role play. Lead the discussion by asking the students thought-provoking questions.
    o Did our players set up this problem well?
    o Did they leave anything out?

    Revising Scene with New Players
    After the students have discussed for a while and brainstormed alternative solutions, choose different students who have proposed new solutions to come up and role play the scene. Encourage students to think about ways that they could solve the problem before someone tattles. The scene will need to be set for these new students by reviewing the characters and setting.
    Stopping Action Again for Discussion and Evaluation
    Once the second solution has been acted out, stop the action to discuss what the students heard and saw in this role play.
    Generalizing About the Experiences
    Once the students have exhausted all the solutions, guide the students in deciding what they learned as a result of the role play by asking the following questions:
    o Which of the solutions to this problem do you think is best?
    o Why is this best?

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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    1. Hi Ganesh,
      Teaching by storytelling is indeed the best method of teaching. We can integrate all the four skills in this method. Reading the details of the chain sentence activity I know it’s an interesting activity indeed. I shall make use of it in my future lessons. I just wonder on how the setting of this activity should be. Managing classroom with minimum 30 pupils around with limited space in the classroom; the setting of the pupils really make a different. It’s a pity that you didn’t share the setting for the activity here. For your information I have this weird habit about classroom setting. My class now is originally an open hall. Each time the school organized programmes, my class shall be deconstructed and for that every time it is reconstructed I change the pupils seating. I love to have them move around to maximize the spaces. One of my favorite seating is the horseshoe shape. I really do wonder it is possible to have the storytelling and role play activities done with this setting.

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  5. Wowww ...its such a wonderful idea & activity 'Chain Story'. Really im motivated to have this game in my ESL classroom in future. So i thanked to you Mr.Ganesan. Maybe my students too will enjoy the teaching and learning process when i handle it.

    Creating, retelling and playing out stories is one of our children’s favourite activities. It lets them enter into their imaginary worlds with confidence especially when taken seriously by the people who are closest to them. As well as helping them develop language, speaking and listening skills, stories help children build positive relationships, learn about other cultures, and make connections that are essential to understanding the world around them. Let these resources help your children’s stories to be heard!

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  6. Storytelling

    Pupils read a story from their textbook. Pupils read the story with the correct pronunciation, intonation and stress. Pupils chose by teacher read te story aloud.
    Activity
    1. Pupils form 6 groups.
    2. Each group will be given a circle map by teacher.
    3. Each group will do different tasks.
    4. Using the map:
    a) First group write the character in the story.
    b) Second group write the setting, time and place.
    c) Third group write about the event in the story.
    d) Fourth, Fifth and sixth group will choose 1 main character each and write features of the character.
    5. All must be written in the circle map.
    6. Pupils will present their work to their classmates.



    Role Playing

    Teacher shows ten pictures to the pupils. Then the teacher pastes the picture cards on the blackboard. After that, teacher shows 10 dialogue cards to the pupils. Teacher asks the pupils to read the dialogue cards aloud. Then, teacher pastes the dialogue cards on the blackboard. The pupils will be asks to match the dialogues to the pictures and find two characters in the picture connected by the dialogues cards.
    Activity:
    1. Two pupils come to the front and observe the picture cards and dialogue cards.
    2. After that, the pupils will take the dialogues cards and match them to the pictures that they think have connection.
    3. After matching them, pupils role play the dialogues in front of the class.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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    1. Nizam,
      That a great job. Simple and practically good. I will practicing it with my student. I would like to suggest other activities with you. In role play activities in topic ambition/work place, you can search in the internet Youtube , the songs of I want to be..it is fun songs and it can practically do in action song. Your pupils will enjoy with the songs.
      Maria bt Zainal
      PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

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  7. Big book (storytelling)
    Pupils gather around the teacher as a shape of horse shoe. Teacher then tells the story to pupils and pupils listen attentively. Teacher tells the story aloud with different voices according the characters in the story.
    Activity:
    1. Teacher asks WH questions based from the story he / she just read.
    2. Pupils will answer based on their understanding verbally.
    3. Teacher asks the pupils to tell the story with their own words or within their understanding.
    4. Teacher distributes worksheet and pupils have to fill in the blanks based from the story that they just heard and discuss
    Role play
    Teacher reads the story from the textbook and pupils repeat after. Then teacher divides them into smaller groups. Teacher carries out choral reading with the pupils. This is to get them familiar with the text and to correct their pronunciation and intonation.
    Activity:
    1. Pupils in each group will have to send 1 representative to the front.
    2. In front of the class, pupil from each group will act out as in the story.
    3. Pupils were not allow to bring the text, so he / she has to memorize the text or use their own words as long as the meaning is remain the same

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    Replies
    1. Perlyn, such a great idea to use big book in storytelling. In order to make the lesson meaningful, I think you can add in an activity that call guess my acting. After telling the story to the pupils, we can put some verbs in a box and asks the pupils to choose for each group/ The group that didn't manage to guess their friends acting will have to present their group presentation. So we can encourage the pupils to learn more vocabulary in a way to enhance their knowledge.

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  8. Role-playing can be a games, where the players take the roles of animals, either "realistic" or antropomorphized. Other popular topics are cartoons, fairy tales, and adventure. According to Year 1 text book, in Unit 5 May I… teacher can create role play activities.
    Role play
    This is appropriate any time of the year and can encourage a lot of interaction between the children. Make a change by having a Malay cafe.
    Suggested items to collect;play food,menu cards,notepad and pencils,apron,chairs and tables,plastic tea set

    Activities: Cooking, making small cakes and biscuits to sell in the shop. Use the cafe as a way of introducing food from other cultures.Make menu cards or have a blackboard for the children to write the menu for the day.Make a polite request and thanks someone.
    Story telling
    Storytelling is a great activity of learning. At each phase of the development of the story, kids ask questions. A proper teller can use tricks to make them curios and encourage them to ask questions. Storytelling is the basic training for academic learning. When they see images in the book and listen to the stories, kids learn to associate between images and story and later imagination and visuals. Practically I always do this in my Year 1 and Year 2 classes. In Year 2 textbook Unit 4 Read Me A Story teacher practice story telling activities.
    Story Telling
    Suggested items to collect;play food white radish, animal mask.
    Activities:teacher retell the story and use all the items to show that make pupils easier to understand and memorize the story.
    Maria bt Zainal
    PG TESL Ambilan Khas

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  9. Storytelling

    For this storytelling activities I would asks the pupils to listen to me while I am reading the story. This kind of activities suit year 1 pupils because I will just read the story words by words and they will repeat after me. I will use the attractive teaching aids to attract the pupils’ attention. Other than that, I will ensure the words that I use in the story are easy to understand.
    Activities.
    1. Pupils form 5 groups.
    2. Each group will be given a picture by teacher.
    3. Each group will have different pictures.
    4. They have to arrange the phrases to form sentences about the pictures.
    5. Then they will paste the sentences below the picture.
    6. Each group will present their work to their classmates.
    7. They will have to copy the sentences from each group into their exercise book.

    Role Playing

    Teacher provides a box that contain a conversation between two peoples. Then the teacher will give instruction to the pupils regarding their conversation that they had choose from the box
    Activities. (At The School Canteen)
    1. Pupils will take turn to pass the box to other pupils.
    2. After that, when the teacher stop the music. Pupils with the box will choose the conversation card. He or she will have to choose a partner to do the activity.
    3. Teacher will guide the pupils to read. But they will do the role play on their own.
    4. Pupils can ask their friends to help them to pronounce the words correctly.
    5. At the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to learn the conversation at the shop.

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    1. Role plays are an excellent way of getting your students to practise their English. They simulate real life situations and allow them to act out what they would do in a real situation.

      There are two ways a role play can go: scripted and non-scripted. With a scripted role play, the teacher might use an example in a text book. This is a good idea for a warm up exercise, by getting everyone to split up into pairs and allow them to speak to their partner, taking on different roles. Non-scripted ones are when students are given a role each and must use whatever knowledge they have in order to speak with that partner.

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  10. Purpose of Activity: This exercise shows that talking about an event, can turn the recollection it into a story that can be communicated as a story. It shows that everyone is a storyteller.
    Before the Activity: This activity is an experiment, as in science. Participants will find out that thinking and talking about a personal memory can change that memory into a story, and involves storytelling. They will discover that they do tell stories without even knowing it. There is no right or wrong way to do so.
    Participants are asked to think of something that really happened to them, a memory that is easy to evoke, such as coming late for work, what they had for breakfast, shopping, or visiting a museum. They are asked to close their eyes, recall that memory, play it a few times in their minds, each time trying to remember more details. Encourage them to use all five senses – sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste. Ask participants to find a partner. The couples then should find a place where they can sit facing each other. Next they have to choose a number, one or two. Then, they should close their eyes and recall their memory. After a few moments of concentration, call out “one” or “two” to announce who start to tell their memory to their partner. After a few minutes, once they’ve had a chance to share the memory, ask everyone to sit quietly for a moment and ask the others to recall their memory, and to relate it.
    Purpose of Activity: This is another way of playing with language, breaking down stories, and finding different and funny ways to tell or perform a story.
    Description of Activity: The leader can take a story (an oral story, picture book, prose story) that is already well known and divide it up into clear parts to be read aloud by everyone, with key bits of narration and character dialogue assigned to those participants who want to read these individually.
    Alternatively, the group can choose a story they wish to perform as a chorus, and work out for themselves which parts will be read or told chorally and which parts are taken by individual readers or storytellers.
    The telling/reading can be as elaborate or as simple as the reader and/or participants wish: sound effects and music can be added, for example. The chorus can be divided up, so that one part echoes or emphasizes the words of the other or of individuals.
    Things to look for: This can be a labour intensive activity, so the leader should plan to give plenty of time for it to develop. Most likely, it needs to develop over a couple of sessions. Alternatively, it can be adapted and simplified so that a large group can be divided into several smaller groups of three to six participants. Then, each small group can work on their own story and present it to the rest. In this case, the activity would fit a half-day or full-day session.

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  11. Learning through stories

    Most children start school familiar with stories and narrative conventions in their own language and quickly transfer this familiarity into a willingness to listen to and participate in stories in English. Stories provide a natural, relevant and enjoyable context for exposure to language and an opportunity to familiarize children with the sounds, rhythm and intonation of English. The discovery and construction of meaning is supported through things such as visuals, mime, gesture, voice and characterization, and children also develop learning strategies and thinking skills, such as predicting, hypothesizing, guessing and inferring meaning. Stories help young children to develop concentration skills and also aspects of emotional intelligence, such as empathy and relating to other people. Stories also provide a springboard for a wide range of activities which develop language, thinking skills, positive attitudes and citizenship, as well as appreciation of other cultures, or understanding of content from other areas of the curriculum. As children increasingly develop their ability to understand, retell, act out and/or create their own stories in English, this also has a positive effect on their motivation, confidence and self-esteem.

    There are various possible approaches to using stories in class. These range from occasional use of stories to supplement a topic or structure-based course book, to using a story-based course book, and possibly supplementing this with additional stories as well, to basing the whole language programme and syllabus on a selection of stories which the children study over a period of time, e.g. two or three stories per term.

    Choosing stories

    Stories can be selected from a range of sources, including graded readers, story websites on the internet or picture books originally written for children whose first language is English. Whatever the source, the most important thing is that the story you choose is suitable for the children it is intended for. You need to check that the content is relevant, interesting, appealing and memorable and, if the story is illustrated, that the visuals are clear and attractive and will support children’s understanding. The language level of the story also needs to be appropriate and to fit in at least partially with your syllabus. Other features, such as whether the discourse pattern of the story is repetitive, cumulative or includes a rhythmic refrain (and therefore promotes participation, aids memory and practises a particular language pattern) will also influence your choice. Over time, it is important to vary the kinds of stories you use, including, for example, traditional stories or, with older children, spoof or modern versions of these, fables or stories with a moral, myths, legends, funny stories, rhyming stories, stories with flaps or pop-ups, biographical stories, stories which help children understand their own feelings, stories from other cultures and stories which are linked to content from other areas of the curriculum.

    Telling stories


    With older children, as part of their understanding of storytelling, it is also important to develop their awareness of how stories are constructed and to give them opportunities to create stories themselves.

    As part of activities in the storytelling cycle, and in order to enrich and enhance children’s learning, it is often appropriate to integrate storytelling with drama.

    Drama activities with children can be ‘risky’ in terms of classroom management and need to be handled carefully and sensitively. It is usually advisable to introduce drama gradually, in activities which are short and where you use techniques such as ‘freeze’ or shaking maracas to control the action. In addition to general points about classroom management, it is vital to show yourself willing to participate in classroom drama and to model the kinds of responses you expect .

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  12. Role-playing takes place between two or more people, who act out roles to explore a particular scenario.

    It's most useful to help you or your team prepare for unfamiliar or difficult situations. For example, you can use it to practice sales meetings, interviews, presentations , or emotionally difficult conversations, such as when you're resolving conflict .

    By acting scenarios like these out, you can explore how other people are likely to respond to different approaches; and you can get a feel for approaches that are likely to work, and for those that might be counter-productive. You can also get a sense of what other people are likely to be thinking and feeling in the situation.

    Also, by preparing for a situation using role-play, you build up experience and self-confidence with handling the situation in real life, and you can develop quick and instinctively correct reactions to situations. This means that you'll react effectively as situations evolve, rather than making mistakes or becoming overwhelmed by events.

    You can also use role-play to spark brainstorming sessions, to improve communication between team members, and to see problems or situations from different perspectives.

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  13. Story telling is an art that has mental, social and educational benefits on pupils People of all ages love stories. pupils are great fans of stories and love to listen to them. Storytelling literally means reading out stories to them or just telling a story from the memory to them. It is becoming a lost art today as many teachers find
    very little time to spend with pupils as the hustle and bustle of life demands them to reserve more time for the needs of life.

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  14. Storytelling

    Children enjoy stories and they make interesting images in the minds while listening to stories. Teaching by telling story is the best method to grab the attention of the students.

    My story telling class is very interactive as I get my students to sit in front of me in a semi-circle. I first started my story using The Big Book and I demonstrate the actions as I read the story. The students get very excited and they are very active and they will want to tell the story too.

    Once the students have got the idea of storytelling by reading, I get the students to memorize a story and present to the class. The students are very innovative as they present their story in an interesting manner. Their voice articulation and intonation make the story telling session very lively.

    This session is done in front of the class with the students seated in a semi-circle. The children have developed an interest in my story telling class that I managed to develop story tellers to participate in story telling competitions at the district level.

    Role play

    Role play is a way to train students to take a role and act it according to the role stated. This means that a student may take a role of a teacher, lawyer or a garderner etc and act the situation. This is an important activity to develop the students towards story telling.

    During role play, I get students to work in pairs. I gave them short dialogues in various situations and get them to act in front of the class. The other students sit in a semi-circle to listen to the role played by the students.

    Both storytelling and role play need to be role modelled by the teacher so that the learners understand the techniques in acting.


    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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  15. 2 types of pupil location and grouping for story-telling and role-play in the ESL classroom

    There are many benefits of using role play. Furness (1976) stated that a child can enjoy and happy doing the activity.He provided seventeen advantages of role-play.
    For the role play activities in my classes, there are six major steps in the procedure.
    1. Decide on the Teaching Materials

    The teacher must decide which teaching materials will be used for role play activities. The teaching materials can be taken from text books or non-textbook teaching materials such as picture books, story books, readers, play-scripts, comic strips, movies, cartoons and pictures. The material is selected ahead of time by the teacher. The teacher can also create his or her own authentic teaching materials for role play activities. The teaching materials should be decided based on students' level and interests, teaching objectives and appropriateness for teaching
    2. Select Situations and Create Dialogs

    Then a situation or situations to be role played should be selected. For every role plays situation, dialogs should be provided (by the teaching materials or by the teacher) or created by the students themselves.
    3. Teach the Dialogs for Role Plays

    The teacher needs to teach the vocabulary, sentences, and dialogs necessary for the role play situations. The teacher needs to make sure the students know how to use the vocabulary, sentences and dialogs prior to doing the role play activities, otherwise, the teacher should allow students to ask how to say the words they want to say.
    4. Have Students Practice the Role Plays

    Students can practice in pairs or in small groups. After they have played their own roles a few times, have them exchange roles. That way, students can play different roles and practice all of the lines in the role play. When students are confident enough to demonstrate or perform in front of the class, the teacher can ask them to do so for their classmates.
    5. Have Students Modify the Situations and Dialogs

    Once students have finished and become familiar with an original role play situation, they can modify the situations and/or dialogs to create a variation of the original role play.
    6. Evaluate and Check Students' Comprehension

    Finally, the teacher shall evaluate the effectiveness of the role play activities and check if students have successfully comprehended the meanings of the vocabulary, sentences and dialogs. There are several ways to do student evaluations. Students can be given oral and listening tests relating to the role plays. Example oral tests can include the following.
    Students are asked to answer some simple questions relating to the role plays.
    Students are asked to reenact the role plays.
    Students are asked to translate the role plays into their native language.
    For listening tests, beginning students can do simpler tasks such as: "listen and circle", "listen and number", "listen and match" types of questions. For more advanced students, they can be asked to write the words, lines, and/or dialogs in the role plays. They can also be asked to create and write variations of the role plays. Teachers can also evaluate students' understanding and comprehension while observing students' interactions, practices, and performances of their role plays.
    Conclusion

    Role play is really a worthwhile learning experience for both the students and the teacher. Not only can students have more opportunities to "act" and "interact" with their peers trying to use the English language, but also students' English speaking, listening, and understanding will improve. Role play lightens up the atmospheres and brings liveliness in the classes. Students learn to use the language in a more realistic, more practical way. Thus they can become more aware of the usefulness and practicality of English. Role play is indeed a useful teaching technique which should be experimented and applied by ESL/EFL teachers more often in the ESL/EFL classrooms.

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  16. Justify the arrangement of using the role-play
    Increasingly, instructors are aware of the need to use a wide range of teaching
    strategies and are selecting to use role-playing and simulations to supplement
    traditional methods of inquiry and investigation.
     Role playing simulation promote effective interpersonal relations and social
    transactions among participants. In order for a simulation to occur the
    participants must accept the duties and responsibilities of their roles and
    functions, and do the best they can in the situation in which they find
    themselves (Jones, 1982). To fulfill their role responsibilities, students must
    relate to others in the simulation, utilising effective social skills.
     Role playing simulation facilitate the development of language skills. Role
    playing and simulation create a safe environment which encourages genuine
    communication and active involvement. Students engage in genuine
    communication when playing their role and are so absorbed in the activity that
    they forget about their fears about using language wrongly.
     In addition to encouraging genuine communication, active involvement, and a
    positive attitude, the simulated "real life" problems help students develop their
    critical thinking and problem solving skills.






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