Thursday, June 19, 2014

PPG - Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3093) - Topic 4
















26 comments :

  1. The information on the slides is obtained from the PPG Module of TSL3093-Managing the Primary ESL Classroom, solely for the use of PPG students of Sem 5, Ambilan Khas Feb 2013) in IPGKTHO.

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  2. Dear teachers,
    Please write the answers for the above task here.

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    Replies
    1. Action Speaks Louder Than Word..
      1. I used to look deeply into pupils eyes when their started making noise in the class.

      2. In the assembly, I stand in the middle of the crowd.

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    2. Wordless Act
      1. Divide pupils into groups of two.
      2. Determine one pupil in each group as pupil A, and one as pupil B.
      3. Give each pupil a copy of the following script.
      4. Pupil A will read his lines out loud, but pupil B will communicate his lines in a nonverbal way.
      5. Provide B with a secret emotional distraction that is written on a piece of paper. For example, pupil B may be in a rush, may be really bored, or may be feeling guilty.
      6. After the dialogue, ask each pupil A to guess what emotion was affecting the student's partner pupil B.
      Dialogue:
      A: Have you seen my book? I can’t remember where I put it.
      B: Which one?
      A: The murder mystery. The one you borrowed.
      B: Is this it?
      A: No. It’s the one you borrowed.
      B. I did not!
      A: Maybe it’s under the chair. Can you look?
      B: OK--just give me a minute.
      A: How long are you going to be?
      B: Geez, why so impatient? I hate when you get bossy.
      A: Forget it. I’ll find it myself.
      B: Wait—I found it!
      This activity provokes pupils’ thinking skill. They have to understand acting without any sound made just body language and face expressions. Teacher injects the acting with a secret emotional distraction to further the challenge of guessing the real situation. Pupils tend to make a mind map the chronology of the act.

      The Silent Movie
      1. Divide pupils into two or more groups. For the first half of class, some pupils will be screenwriters and others will be actors. Roles will switch for the second half.
      2. The screenwriter pupils will write a silent movie scene, with the following tips in mind:
      Silent movies tell a story without words. It is important to start the scene with a person doing an obvious task, like cleaning the house or rowing a boat.
      3. This scene is interrupted when a second actor (or several actors) enters the scene. The appearance of the new actor/s has a big impact. Remember that the new characters could be animals, burglars, children, salesmen, etc.
      4. A physical commotion takes place.
      5. The problem is resolved.
      The acting groups will perform the script(s). Everyone sits back to enjoy the show! Popcorn is a good addition.
      This exercise gives the pupils a great opportunity to act out and read nonverbal messages. It does show the dominant site of certain pupils but it also enhance their cooperation and togetherness. Pupils can show off their hidden talents and enjoy doing it at the same time.

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    3. Thanks Kak Azlima,
      That was a complete practically of non-verbal communication you do in your class. For silent movies activity was a fun and enjoy that I must practice with my student. But I will change it little bit because of my level one student. I will make it like a simple game such as see and guess. I will divide pupils in a five group and each group have one leader to do the action of character that I write in a card.Other members in a group will guess the character is a doctor,sailor etc.

      Delete
  3. Non-verbal communications is something you always do, knowingly or unknowingly. Through body language like the way you hold your body, your facial expressions, little gestures or through the tone of your voice …..

    Example 1

    I think that in teaching, as in other field, NVC plays a quite important role. It may help us to solve the problem of using the L1 in the classroom. For example, if the teacher wants to explain the meaning of the word “big” to kids, he/she may just open his hand widely and in this way hint the students what the word means, rather than translate it into their native language. Besides, i think many activities are based on NVC, such as discussions (face expressions) guessing activities. I also think that students pay quite a lot of attention to their teacher’s facial expressions, gestures and postures.

    Here is a hint to you :-
    i. If your students lean forward during the class, they are getting more interested in the subject.
    ii. If your students lean back, the class isn’t really interesting for them.
    iii. If your students touch their nose or ears- Be careful! They maybe cheating.

    Example 2
    Eye behavior seems to be particular importance and is generally used to indicate whether one is open to communication. This can be observed when a teacher asks the class a question: students who think they know the answer will generally look the teacher, while students who do not will usually try to avoid eye contact.

    Visual contact with the instructor appears related to student’s comprehension. Jecker, Maccoby, and Breitrose isolated visual cues given by students which seemed associated with comprehension of lecture content and reported that teachers trained to recognize such cues became more accurate in their judgment of student comprehension that did untrained teachers.

    I believe that only very self-confident, knowledgeable and attentive students will prefer 100% of eye contact time. Nobody is in this mood all the time and many are never. On the other hand 0% of time of eye contact would mean that speaker has great deal of trouble with self-confidence, knowledge or care for students.This explains this result of 50% and it is the valuable information for teacher.

    Teachers often use eye contact in the classroom to decide who is prepared to answer a question, or who was completed a homework.Teachers can have individual eye contact with every student in the classroom through eye contact. Attitudes of intimacy, aloofness, concern, or indifference can be inferred by the way a teacher looks or avoids looking at a student.

    Most experienced teachers are aware when students are bored with the subject matter being presented. Students’ eyes often signal listening and nonlistening behaviors, thus transmitting subtle messages about their lack of attentiveness.

    Students’ who are constantly looking at the wall clock rather than watching and listening to the teacher may be indicating the need for a break, the dullness of the content, or a lack of teacher motivation and preparation.In any case, observation of eye behavior can be used in evaluating teacher and student performance.


    Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Sem 5

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    Replies
    1. Here I would like to share my experience in non-verbal communication in the classroom.

      From my own experience, as a student and as a teacher, I know that there is variety of nonverbal signals emitted from teacher in classroom which to deepest levels influence classroom atmosphere, students moods, perception, learning and eventually attitudes towards knowledge and school generally.
      On the other hand teacher has powerful tool to identify what is actually going on with his class in general and each individual per se, without any word being said.
      This is extremely important in lecture like classes when teacher is primarily supposed to talk.

      Facial expression in the classroom

      All people and thus certainly teachers and students use facial expressions to form impressions of another. A cold hard stare has long been in the repertoire of teacher’s weapons. Similarly, a smile can be useful tool in reinforcing desired student behaviors (this time in affirmative way).

      A teacher can also use student’s facial expressions as valuable sources of feedback. When, for example, delivering a lecture, a teacher should use student’s expressions to determine whether or not to slow down, speed up, or in some other way modify his presentation.

      Facial expression involves some of the smallest body movements, but its impact in the classroom may be greater than any other body language the teacher exhibits. The teacher probably communicates more accidentally by his or her facial expression than by any other means.

      When teachers are responding to students, these changes in facial expression can serve as reinforces to the student or as non-reinforcers. Unfortunately, the teacher normaly has very little control over such micro-momentary movements, but should be able to control more long-lasting expressions, such as smiles or frowns.


      Gestures

      Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Gestures also serve an important function with regard to regulating the flow of conversation. For example, if a student is talking in class, single nods of the head from the teacher will likely cause that student to continue and perhaps elaborate.

      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl
      Sem 5

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    2. Hi Ganes,
      I bet both nonverbal communications you posted had been applied in your classes. After reading your descriptions I found myself approving your answers. They are familiar nonverbal communications for me too. Without noticing, I’ve been practicing and applying the same ways in my ESL classrooms. These points also contribute tremendously in my classroom management. In my opinion, teachers should be acknowledge and practice the same points. Pupils may practice their thinking skills when facing these ways of communications. The lessons can be more meaningful, cheerful with these kinds of communications that engaged both teachers and pupils for better understanding. Building positive relationships with all the pupils ensure a better classroom management throughout the year.

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    3. Hi Ganesan,

      I am here just to approved your justification about using both facial expression and gestures. Both non-verbal communication are easier to be applied to our pupils as both are easily understood by them. We as teacher know how bad it is if we give misdirection to the pupils using non-verbal communications which is not usual to us. We want to used something more effective and practical without misleading them to other circumstances.

      Delete
  4. Nonverbal communication has received much attention in the areas of business presentation, sales and marketing, and the development of social skills. Little attention, however, has been given to its importance in general communication despite major differences in cultural use and interpretation of body language, expression, personal space and other nonverbal tools. It is estimated that less than ten percent of interpersonal communication involves words, the remainder being made up of voice tone, sounds and a variety of devices such as kinetics (movement), haptics (touch), oculesics (eye-contact), proxemics (space) and chronomics (time) as well as posture, sound symbols and silence, which either replace or accompany words. Different studies have identified a wide variety of types of nonverbal communication.

    Example 1

    Facial expressions

    The face is very expressive and can be used to great effect by teachers. The most powerful facial expression is the smile. Students like teachers who smile a lot, because teachers who smile send out the message that they are enjoying being with the students, they are relaxed and they are confident. Of course teachers shouldn't take smiling to ridiculous lengths, there are obviously times when a more serious expression is appropriate. Interestingly, the effect of withholding a smile can sometimes communicate powerfully to students that some aspect of their behaviour has met with disapproval, and is often more effective than any words.
    Another powerful facial expression is the open, receptive face - eyes open noticeably wider than usual, lips slightly apart. The non-verbal cue here is that the teacher has asked a question, or made a request for information, and is now waiting for the answer, expecting that an answer will be forthcoming. Teachers must take care, on occasions, not to allow facial expressions to betray what might be a strong emotion they are feeling. For example, it's so easy to become angry and frustrated by some aspects of student behavior, and that anger can be 'written all over your face' - it's a very human response. Unfortunately, if students detect your anger they may well respond negatively. Every teacher has 'been there', but it can get better with practice and experience. I have found that as a general rule, as well as smiling, a 'calm, assertive' expression works well in most situations. You don't smile, but you don't frown, you keep a 'straight face' which sends the message that you're in control, both of yourself and the situation.

    Example 2

    Eye contact

    The teacher has the advantage of a unique standpoint, literally, as the only person in the classroom who can easily see everybody else. Teachers can take advantage of this by making sure they scan the room continuously, not only as a way of monitoring student behavior, but also as a way of making all students feel included in the interaction.
    Often, the extended stare can have the effect of drawing attention to a minor misdemeanor or lack of attentiveness, and like all non-verbal cues, can be more powerful than a verbal reprimand.
    More positively, a teacher making eye contact with individual students who are answering a question or making some other contribution to the learning is a positive way of expressing approval of both the student and of the response the student is making. Just like in other contexts, students appreciate being looked at when they have something important to say.
    Avoid the temptations to 'roll your eyes' if you disapprove or are frustrated by specific student behavior, because this is a powerful negative non-verbal cue that is dismissive of the student, and counter-productive.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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    Replies
    1. Hi Ganesan...im too have some tips to be shared with you about the non-verbal communications skill...can i?
      My non verbal communication teaching strategies can be very effective in achieving classroom discipline and creating a respectful and positive classroom environment!

      Examples of Non Verbal Communication
      Here's a list of assertive discipline strategies that I have used over my many years that helped to establish a positive and successful learning environment.

      * Body language is sooo important! - students can read you. Crossing your arms a lot is seen as a negative stand and could put students on the defensive for no reason.
      * Be aware that your students also communicate their feelings as well as other messages through non verbal cues and signals. Listen to your students' body language.
      * Eye contact is the most powerful method of non verbal communication between people. Be sure to establish eye contact with your students to gain their trust and make positive impressions.
      * Before you begin teaching/talking always "scan" the classroom and make sure "all eyes on me".
      * If the classroom is very noisy with students talking but they know that you want to start your lesson, one extremely effective tactic is to stand still and stare at the clock (wherever it is in the room) and wait patiently and calmly until they stop talking (do not cross your arms).
      When there is silence, calmly say "You have just wasted 3,4,5, etc., minutes of my time. It is to be made up at recess". At recess, the students are to sit quietly for the amount of time they wasted and then be dismissed quietly. (No working or reading is to be done by the students during that time - you on the other hand, can mark work or do whatever).
      * The 5 second stare - When teaching and a student is talking, stop talking, even in mid-sentence, wait patiently staring at the student while counting to five (to yourself), and then continue teaching the lesson (stare at them, not through them - most effective).
      * Hold up your hand to "STOP" students from talking or doing something they shouldn't be doing.
      * Put your index finger to your mouth (for "Shhh") to make student(s) quiet.
      * Nod your head to indicate "NO", to stop them from doing something wrong and then smile and nod "yes" after they stop.
      * Shrug your shoulders and hand gesture to ask "What are you doing?".
      * Point in the direction you want a student to go to or look at.
      * Circulate around the room as you teach (when applicable)- you're not glued to the front of the class - too hypnotizing.
      * When circulating around the room and talking, touch or put your handgently on the shoulder of the student who is not focused and then continue walking.
      * Touching is a very tricky subject in today's society. Touching in any form as a behavioral deterrent must be avoided. Touching as a sign of congratulations in younger children is accepted but should be avoided for older students.
      * While circulating and "scanning" the classroom, as you are teaching, you notice a student who is writing or reading. Gently put their pencil, marker, or paper down on their desk and continue walking and smiling as you walk away, without losing a beat.
      * Frowning if you disapprove, also works well.
      * Lower your hand to let students know to lower their hand to ask questions later.
      I'm sure by now you can understand that non verbal communication strategies can be a very useful and powerful tool in establishing and maintaining classroom discipline in a positive motivational manner. I hope you will enjoy it too...!

      Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
      PPG TESL
      Semester 5

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  5. The first non-verbal communications that I used in my classroom is facial expressions. I used it because there are many expressions I can make using this method. Moreover, it is easy to be understood by the pupils and they can mimic the expressions in for their own use. Using facial expression can also be fun as I can use it while reading story session with my pupils. It also can be used as a type non-body contact punishment to the pupils which is better than body contact punishment.

    The second non-verbal communications that I used is body gestures. I can use it as a form of command. I can use it as a form of trick or puzzles. Using body gestures can be comprehended easily by the pupils and it can be fun too. Pupils can also mimic my body gestures. They can use it during role play or singing. Using body gestures are very effective and it is a good tools to make any lesson runs smoothly.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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    Replies
    1. hi nizam, I would share this to you..
      Getting Attention/Signaling for Quiet
      During group work, partner activities, and other daily tasks, the noise level can often times get too high. When the teacher wants to lower the noise volume, or simply get the attention of the class, there needs to be signal so that all the students know they are expected to be quiet and listen for directions. If all students know the signal, there will be a controlled classroom of learners, and easy implementation of lowering noise levels. The signal I have chosen to use is for the teacher to say, “If you can hear me, clap one time” if not all students clap the teacher would say, “If you can hear me, clap two times.” This signal provides not only a visual but also a noise for the students to hear when they need to be quiet. Once all the students clap when the teacher says, the class will listen as the teacher gives further directions. This signal is a good way to get the students attention, and get them transitioned into listening. By clapping, the students will be required to set their pencils down and stop working on their activities to listen. If the class is so loud, they do not hear the claps of the teacher, the teacher will then shut off the lights and the students will know they were too loud and they need to cover their mouths with their hands.

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  6. 1. Facial Expression
    Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.

    2. Gestures
    Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.

    BENEFITS:
    FACIAL EXPRESSION
    The saying “A picture is worth a thousand words” well describes the meaning of facial expression. Facial appearance - including wrinkles, muscle tone, skin coloration, and eye color-offers enduring cues that reveal information about age, sex, race, ethnic origin, and status.
    Facial expression in the classroom
    All people and thus certainly teachers and students use facial expressions to form impressions of another. A cold hard stare has long been in the repertoire of teacher’s weapons. Similarly, a smile can be useful tool in reinforcing desired student behaviors (this time in affirmative way).
    A teacher can also use student’s facial expressions as valuable sources of feedback. When, for example, delivering a lecture, a teacher should use student’s expressions to determine whether or not to slow down, speed up, or in some other way modify his presentation.
    Facial expression involves some of the smallest body movements, but its impact in the classroom may be greater than any other body language the teacher exhibits. The teacher probably communicates more accidentally by his or her facial expression than by any other means.
    Scientists who study facial expression refer to “micro-momentary movements,” changes in expression that constantly occur in all human communicators and are usually so fleeting that it requires highly technical photography to be able to isolate them for study. However, as quickly as they pass across a person’s face, they are picked up by other people and produce responses.
    This is the reason why, soon after taking nonverbal communication for final project I realized that I am in trouble. When teachers are responding to students, these changes in facial expression can serve as reinforces to the student or as non-reinforcers. Unfortunately, the teacher normaly has very little control over such micro-momentary movements, but should be able to control more long-lasting expressions, such as smiles or frowns.
    Gestures
    Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Gestures also serve an important function with regard to regulating the flow of conversation. For example, if a student is talking in class, single nods of the head from the teacher will likely cause that student to continue and perhaps elaborate.

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  7. From my understanding, non-verbal communications include facial expressions, the tone and pitch of the voice, gestures displayed through body language (kinesics) and the physical distance between the communicators (proxemics). These non-verbal signals can give clues and additional information and meaning over and above spoken (verbal) communication. In my classroom, two example of non-verbal communication that I use are eye contact and body movement. First situation, in reading session, my eye will observing the pupils who are not focus. I will enlarge my eyes to those who are busy chatting with their friends. Another situation, when I write on the blackboard pupil’s start chatting and playing I just keep move around the class and stop to pupils are busy and chatting and playing. For those examples, practically succeed to apply and make the pupils behave themselves. Actually, for positive application eye contact and body movement will use in student performance such as storytelling.
    Maria bt Zainal
    PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

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    Replies
    1. Hi Maria,
      I want to share my opinion with you. By using eye contact also you can make the pupils know what do you want them to do. You can set it at the beginning of the year when you first enter the classroom. So from that your pupils will know the "signal" of your eyes. We can use our eye contact to get to know which pupils are ready during the lesson or you can just stare at the pupils who are not paying attention with you.

      As for body movement or gesture, you could also use different kind of technique too. Such as pointing to the pupils or you can just sit at your chair while the pupils get back to you, this could happen when we are teaching year 1 to year 3. But if we are teaching the phase 2 pupils we have to use other ways to tackle the pupils interest to pay attention in the classroom. Hope we can share our knowledge better.

      Delete
  8. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

    1)Gestures
    Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Gestures also serve an important function with regard to regulating the flow of conversation. For example, if a student is talking in class, single nods of the head from the teacher will likely cause that student to continue and perhaps elaborate. Postures as well as gestures are used to indicate attitudes, status, affective moods, approval, deception, warmth, and other variables related to classroom interaction. Ekman and Friesen (1967) have suggested that posture conveys gross or overall affect (liking), while specific emotions are communicated by more discreet, facial and body movements.

    2) EYES CONTACT
    The most dominant and reliable features of the face, the eyes, provide a constant channel of communication. They can be shifty and evasive; convey hate, fear, and guilt; or express confidence, love, and support. Referred to as “mirrors of the soul,” the eye serve as the major decision factor in interpreting the spoken words. Except for extremely shy individuals, most people look for social acceptance by studying the eyes of others.

    Eyes also can accurately indicate a positive or a negative relationship. People tend to look longer and more often at those, whom they trust, respect and care about than at those whom they doubt or dislike.
    Eye contact is often used to control an interpersonal interaction. When people do not wish to be interrupted, they will often glance away and continue talking.
    When they wish the other person to speak, they will pause, making direct eye contact. Teachers often use eye contact in the classroom to decide who is prepared to answer a question, or who was completed a homework assignment.

    One interesting information to be aware of. Eye contact is often used as an indicant of whether or not a person is laying. The stereotype is that a dishonest person will not look you in the eye.
    Many teachers who suspect a student is cheating on a test may, in the absence of other evidence, decide a student is lying because the student fails to look them in the eye when answering a direct question about the test.

    Unfortunately, there seems to be little validity to this theory. Research has actually found the reverse to be true-people who are lying are more likely to look the other person directly the eye, probably as a conscious response to the stereotype.
    Teachers can have individual eye contact with every student in the classroom through eye contact. Attitudes of intimacy, aloofness, concern, or indifference can be inferred by the way a teacher looks or avoids looking at a student.
    Most experienced teachers are aware when students are bored with the subject matter being presented. Students’ eyes often signal listening and non-listening behaviors, thus transmitting subtle messages about their lack of attentiveness. Students’ who are constantly looking at the wall clock rather than watching and listening to the teacher may be indicating the need for a break, the dullness of the content, or a lack of teacher motivation and preparation. In any case, observation of eye behavior can be used in evaluating teacher and student performance.

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  9. Nonverbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people

    1.Gestures
    Gestures may be made with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one's eyes

    2.Facial expressions
    It is important to understand these more subtle signals as a larger part of the communication process.

    Benefits

    Facial expressions include such actions as smiling, frowning, eye rolling, eye contact, scowling, and appearing bored or interested. Other facial expressions might indicate interest or excitement or even shock, like opening one's eyes or mouth widely. Winking might indicate that we are joking about the remark we made, or flirting with the person to whom we are speaking! Raising our eyebrows often indicates that we are surprised or do not believe the statement we are hearing

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    Replies
    1. Use gestures and other nonverbal behaviors to help you teach concepts from all subject areas. This will be especially useful for students learning English. Make sure your gestures do not contradict what you are saying. Learn to read your students’ gestures to help you discover what they already know and what they are ready to learn.

      The face is very expressive and can be used to great effect by teachers. The most powerful facial expression is the smile. nterestingly, the effect of withholding a smile can sometimes communicate powerfully to students that some aspect of their behaviour has met with disapproval, and is often more effective than any words.

      Delete
  10. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  11. Body movements include gestures, posture, head and hand movements or whole body movements. Body movements can be used to reinforce or emphasise what a person is saying and also offer information about the emotions and attitudes of a person. However, it is also possible for body movements to conflict with what is said. A skilled observer may be able to detect such discrepancies in behaviour and use them as a clue to what someone is really feeling.
    Research work has identified the different categories of body movement that are detailed below with each category describing the purpose they commonly serve:
    • Emblems: Gestures that serve the same function as a word are called emblems. For example, the signals that mean 'OK', 'Come here!', or the hand movement used when hitch-hiking. However, be aware that whilst some emblems are internationally recognised, others may need to be interpreted in their cultural context.
    • Illustrators: Gestures which accompany words to illustrate a verbal message are known as illustrators. For example, the common circular hand movement which accompanies the phrase 'over and over again', or nodding the head in a particular direction when saying 'over there'.
    • Affect Displays: These are facial expressions or gestures which show the emotions we feel. These are often unintentional and can conflict with what is being said. Such expressions give strong clues as to the true emotional state of a person.
    • Regulators: Gestures used to give feedback when conversing are called regulators, for example head nods, short sounds such as 'uh-huh', 'mm-mm', and expressions of interest or boredom. Regulators allow the other person to adapt his or her speech to reflect the level of interest or agreement. Without receiving feedback, many people find it difficult to maintain a conversation.
    • Adaptors: Non-verbal behaviours which either satisfy some physical need such as scratching or adjusting uncomfortable glasses, or represent a psychological need such as biting fingernails when nervous. Although normally subconscious, adaptors are more likely to be restrained in public places than in the private world of individuals where they are less likely to be noticed. Adaptive behaviours often accompany feelings of anxiety or hostility.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Eye Contact
    Eye contact is an important aspect of non-verbal behaviour. In interpersonal interaction, it serves three main purposes:
    • To give and receive feedback: Looking at someone lets them know that the receiver is concentrating on the content of their speech. Not maintaining eye contact can indicate disinterest. Communication may not be a smooth process if a listener averts their eyes too frequently.
    • To let a partner know when it is their 'turn' to speak: This is related to the above point. Eye contact is more likely to be continuous when someone is listening, rather than speaking. When a person has finished what they have to say, they will look directly at the other person and this gives a signal that the arena is open. If someone does not want to be interrupted, eye contact may be avoided.
    • To communicate something about a relationship between people: When you dislike someone, you tend to avoid eye contact and pupil size is often reduced. On the other hand, the maintenance of positive eye contact signals interest or attraction in a partner.

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  12. All teachers send out non verbal cues to students in every class. Psychologists say that over 90% of all human communication is non verbal , and some research suggests that at least 75% of all classroom communication is non verbal. It makes sense therefore for teachers to use non verbal communication to their advantage in the classroom.

    Body movement and gesture in the classroom

    The variety of ways in which teacher and students walk, stand, or sit can all affect interpersonal perception. The teacher who slouches or twitches when talking to students is not likely to be perceived as a composed person. Conversely, the teacher who always appears unruffled regardless of the circumstances is likely to be perceived as cold and withdrawn.

    Body postures and movements are frequently indicators of self-confidence, energy, fatigue, or status. In the classroom, students keen to receive body message of enthusiasm or boredom about the subject matter being taught can sense confidence or frustration from the unconscious behaviours of teachers.Observant teachers can also tell when students understand the content presented or when they have trouble grasping the major concepts. A student who is slouching in his seat sends a very different message than the student who learns forward or sits erect.
    Gestures

    Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Gestures also serve an important function with regard to regulating the flow of conversation. For example, if a student is talking in class, single nods of the head from the teacher will likely cause that student to continue and perhaps elaborate.
    Facial expression in the classroom

    All people and thus certainly teachers and students use facial expressions to form impressions of another. A cold hard stare has long been in the repertoire of teacher’s weapons. Similarly, a smile can be useful tool in reinforcing desired student behaviors (this time in affirmative way).

    A teacher can also use student’s facial expressions as valuable sources of feedback. When, for example, delivering a lecture, a teacher should use student’s expressions to determine whether or not to slow down, speed up, or in some other way modify his presentation.

    Facial expression involves some of the smallest body movements, but its impact in the classroom may be greater than any other body language the teacher exhibits. The teacher probably communicates more accidentally by his or her facial expression than by any other means.

    Scientists who study facial expression refer to “micro-momentary movements,” changes in expression that constantly occur in all human communicators and are usually so fleeting that it requires highly technical photography to be able to isolate them for study. However, as quickly as they pass across a person’s face, they are picked up by other people and produce responses.

    This is the reason why, soon after taking nonverbal communication for final project

    When teachers are responding to students, these changes in facial expression can serve as reinforces to the student or as non-reinforcer. Unfortunately, the teacher normal has very little control over such micro-momentary movements, but should be able to control more long-lasting expressions, such as smiles or frowns.


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  13. Example 1

    Facial expressions

    The face is very expressive and can be used to great effect by teachers. The most powerful facial expression is the smile. Students like teachers who smile a lot, because teachers who smile send out the message that they are enjoying being with the students, they are relaxed and they are confident. Of course teachers shouldn't take smiling to ridiculous lengths, there are obviously times when a more serious expression is appropriate. Interestingly, the effect of withholding a smile can sometimes communicate powerfully to students that some aspect of their behaviour has met with disapproval, and is often more effective than any words.
    Another powerful facial expression is the open, receptive face - eyes open noticeably wider than usual, lips slightly apart. The non-verbal cue here is that the teacher has asked a question, or made a request for information, and is now waiting for the answer, expecting that an answer will be forthcoming. Teachers must take care, on occasions, not to allow facial expressions to betray what might be a strong emotion they are feeling. For example, it's so easy to become angry and frustrated by some aspects of student behavior, and that anger can be 'written all over your face' - it's a very human response. Unfortunately, if students detect your anger they may well respond negatively. Every teacher has 'been there', but it can get better with practice and experience. I have found that as a general rule, as well as smiling, a 'calm, assertive' expression works well in most situations. You don't smile, but you don't frown, you keep a 'straight face' which sends the message that you're in control, both of yourself and the situation.

    Example 2

    Eye contact

    The teacher has the advantage of a unique standpoint, literally, as the only person in the classroom who can easily see everybody else. Teachers can take advantage of this by making sure they scan the room continuously, not only as a way of monitoring student behavior, but also as a way of making all students feel included in the interaction.

    Often, the extended stare can have the effect of drawing attention to a minor misdemeanor or lack of attentiveness, and like all non-verbal cues, can be more powerful than a verbal reprimand.

    More positively, a teacher making eye contact with individual students who are answering a question or making some other contribution to the learning is a positive way of expressing approval of both the student and of the response the student is making. Just like in other contexts, students appreciate being looked at when they have something important to say.

    Avoid the temptations to 'roll your eyes' if you disapprove or are frustrated by specific student behavior, because this is a powerful negative non-verbal cue that is dismissive of the student, and counter-productive.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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  14. Many of the students use to make judgments about teacher’s competence or characters are obtained by observing the teacher’s nonverbal behavior.From my own experience, as a student and as a teacher, I know that there is variety of nonverbal signals emitted from teacher in classroom which to deepest levels influence classroom atmosphere, students moods, perception, learning and eventually attitudes towards knowledge and school generally.
    On the other hand teacher has powerful tools to identify what is actually going on with his class in general and each individual per se, without any word being said. This is extremely important in lecture like classes when teacher is primarily supposed to talk.Verbal signals or indirect communication are never so powerful. But, nonverbal signals are much more difficult to capture, describe and rationally explain because we necessarily have to use words to do that and words are not enough fine and precise tool for this (similar as they are not for describing pictures). Nonverbal communication in the classroom occurs with distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, body movements and gestures, touch, time, physical attractiveness, and dress.

    Movements and gestures by the hands, arms, legs, and other parts of the body and face are the most pervasive types of nonverbal messages and the most difficult to control. Humans express attitudes toward themselves and vividly through body motions and posture. People communicate by the way they walk, stand, and sit. We tend to be more relaxed with friends or when addressing those of lower or higher status.

    Other than facial expressions, eye contact, gestures and posture are also important in non-verbal communication in the classroom.Gestures are part of a teacher's stock in trade. Human communication is often enhaced by appropriate use of gestures.Teachers use gestures in the classroom to:
    • make the lesson content clearer by emphasising specific points or by making an explanation more graphic
    • hold attention better and therefore maintain interest

    It's also possible to use gestures to:
    • remind students of specific routines - for example, to look at whiteboard or screen, to listen carefully, not to 'rock' on the chair etc.
    • bring students back 'on task'
    • maintain the flow of an activity - for example, some kind of 'continue' gesture makes it clear that you want more information in the answer from the student

    It's important to explain to students what your gestures mean. All teachers have their idiosyncrasies and the meaning behind some gestures may not be immediately clear. With my classes, for example, I often do an arm raising gesture - some of my students call it the ' Hitler gesture' - to emphasise the need for adding an accent over the letter 'e' when using the past tense in French.

    You can have some fun with students by asking them to guess what each gesture means. This can be a particularly good ice-breaker at the start of the school year. Teachers need to pay attention to their posture in the classroom. If you want to give students positive non verbal cues make sure:

    • you stand 'centre stage' when you want everyone's attention, especially at the start of a lesson - this is a powerful signal that it's your show and you're ready to start
    • your body language shows you take the classroom business seriously - for example, you make sure students can see as well as hear you, you don't slouch in your chair at your desk and try to deliver your lecture, you look alert and interested.
    • you move around the room frequently - this tells your students you own all the classroom space - but it also aids teacher student communication because it includes all students and your shifting proximity keeps them focused.
    • you look relaxed, confident, 'calm and assertive'.

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  15. When we think about communication, we most often focus on how we exchange information using words. While verbal communication is important, humans relied on nonverbal communication for thousands of years before we developed the capability to communicate with words. Nonverbal communication is a process of generating meaning using behavior other than words. Rather than thinking of nonverbal communication as the opposite of or as separate from verbal communication, it’s more accurate to view them as operating side by side—as part of the same system. Yet, as part of the same system, they still have important differences, including how the brain processes them. For instance, nonverbal communication is typically governed by the right side of the brain and verbal.Nonverbal communication has a distinct history and serves separate evolutionary functions from verbal communication. For example, nonverbal communication is primarily biologically based while verbal communication is primarily culturally based. This is evidenced by the fact that some nonverbal communication has the same meaning across cultures while no verbal communication systems share that same universal recognizability.Nonverbal communication also evolved earlier than verbal communication and served an early and important survival function that helped humans later develop verbal communication. While some of our nonverbal communication abilities, like our sense of smell, lost strength as our verbal capacities increased, other abilities like paralanguage and movement have grown alongside verbal complexity. The fact that nonverbal communication is processed by an older part of our brain makes it more instinctual and involuntary than verbal communication.

    A primary function of nonverbal communication is to convey meaning by reinforcing, substituting for, or contradicting verbal communication. Nonverbal communication is also used to influence others and regulate conversational flow. Perhaps even more important are the ways in which nonverbal communication functions as a central part of relational communication and identity expression.
    Nonverbal communication is also useful in a quiet situation where verbal communication would be disturbing; for example, you may use a gesture to signal to a friend that you’re ready to leave the library. Crowded or loud places can also impede verbal communication and lead people to rely more on nonverbal messages. Getting a server or bartender’s attention with a hand gesture is definitely more polite than yelling, “Hey you!” Finally, there are just times when we know it’s better not to say something aloud. If you want to point out a person’s unusual outfit or signal to a friend that you think his or her date is a loser, you’re probably more likely to do that nonverbally.

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