Wednesday, July 30, 2014

PPG - Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3093) - Topic 6






























49 comments :

  1. The information on the slides is obtained from the module of PPG Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3093).

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  2. Dear teachers,
    Please post your answers here.

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    Replies
    1. Task 1a

      Productive behaviors are influenced by many contextual factors including interpersonal interactions and relationships. Pupils will be provided with resourceful information, advice and modeled behaviors.
      I can recalled back a few teaching experiences occurred in my classroom. I taught year 3 pupils in early March. I established a list of rules and signs for my lessons. For example; I created a set of short and simple instruction. If I called out loudly “ listen, listen, listen” the pupils have to answer “ I’m listening” and of course automatically they keep silent and listen to my next instruction. If I found that the class was noisy and the pupils were not paying attention, I called out the word “sit” three times and my pupils stopped their activities no matter where and what they were doing, immediately find their chairs and sit while saying “ I sitting”. In a way I developed my own classroom disciplined.
      My pupils were enjoying themselves while we learned. I saw some good manners displayed when they practiced my instructions among themselves. Those with disciplined problems eventually understand how the system in classroom works and took charged of the classroom controlled. They behave well following my instructions throughout the lessons and always pay attention in classroom. I perceived productive behaviors, both for individual and group behaviors with a classroom chart. They gather token for good behavior as an individual or when they act as one of the group members.


      Task 1b

      There are 13 boys and 12 girls in my year 3 class. They are among those who are quiet good in all the subjects. These pupils display their productive behavior in the daily lessons. I integrated some good manners in the classroom decorations plus in my lessons. I can see they practiced using the same manners during the scaffolding activities. My scaffolding activities are from easy to difficult. According to self-determination theory, pupils have a psychological need to relate to other people. When pupils have positive interpersonal interaction involvement with peers or with the teachers, they will develop positive image about themselves and will become more engaged in learning tasks. Creating positive learning environment is very crucial to support and enhance productive behavior. Sometimes I need to demonstrate by practicing one or two productive behavior myself. Eventually it promotes on how to make use or practice the behavior in certain situation and reduce misbehavior problems in the classroom.

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    2. Here I shared you the productive behaviour as I handled in my classroom:

      In the presence of high quality behavior management, students typically understand and engage in the range of acceptable classroom behaviors and little time is spent managing their behaviors. This minimizes distractions and disruptions, allows the majority of classroom time to be spent on instructional activities, and increases the amount of time students are immersed in learning. Furthermore, dealing with misbehavior can be draining and stressful for teachers and students. By reducing the frequency and intensity of behavioral problems, the classroom is a more comfortable and enjoyable environment for all.
      Clear communication of behavioral expectations
      • Be explicit and be clear. Establish rules that can be generalized across many different activities and are stated positively (e.g., “Be respectful,” rather than “Don’t be rude.”). Be specific about expectations. For example, if a student keeps interrupting others during a classroom discussion, prompt this student by saying “Robert, remember that we need to let each person complete his/her thoughts without interruption.

      • Be consistent with consequences. Immediately following any misbehavior, provide students with a predictable response about the behavior. If it is a classroom rule for students to raise their hands in order to respond, be consistent in only calling on students with a hand raised. Make sure that students know when this rule is or is not in effect. Make sure students understand the consequences of their behavior, but avoid threats. Be open to discussion about students’ perceptions of fairness and unbiased treatment.

      Proactive planning
      • Monitor student behavior. Look for cues (e.g., body language, facial expressions, rising noise level) that indicate students may be moving toward more disruptive or inattentive behavior.

      • Anticipate problem behavior. Establish classroom rules and behavioral expectations early. Giving students some role in this process can give them a sense of ownership and fairness. Review rules and expectations regularly. Anticipate moments when misbehavior is likely to occur (e.g., transitions, discussions of sensitive topics), and reiterate rules/expectations at this time, before any misbehavior occurs.

      • Get in close proximity to your students. Move closer to where you note behavioral problems. Your presence will make a difference to your students!

      • Give specific praise. Notice when students are behaving, and give specific information about what it is they are doing well. For example, rather than telling students, “You’re behaving really well today,” say, “You folks are working together well. You’re helping each other, and I can see you are each taking part. You are making good progress.” This statement promotes desired behavior and serves as a model for other students so they know what types of behavior are expected.

      Redirection of misbehavior
      • Use subtle cues to redirect. Intervene before situations escalate by redirecting minor misbehavior. Effective and quick redirection techniques for individual students include eye-contact, moving closer to the student, gentle touch, using the student’s name, and specifying the desired behavior. Develop classroom level routines that quickly reorient the whole class when they are too loud or not paying attention (e.g., visual and verbal cues, lowering your voice, etc.). These subtle signals encourage students to monitor their own behavior and self-correct.

      Student behavior
      • Students behaviors meet expectations. As a result of your clear expectations, proactive strategies, and effective redirection of misbehavior, your students’ behavior meets expectations. There is an absence of aggression, defiance or chaos in the class.


      Ganesan Veerappan
      PPG Tesl
      Sem 5

      Delete
  3. Task 1

    Based on my teaching experienced, I used these productive behaviour in my classroom. Such as:

    Classroom Management

    Classroom management focuses on creating and maintaining an orderly learning environment, and discipline involves teacher responses to student misbehavior. Research documents the importance of classroom management for learning and motivation. Cognitive approaches to management emphasize learners’ understanding and personal responsibility.

    Planning for Effective Classroom Management

    Well-planned rules and procedures help establish and maintain orderly classrooms. An effective list of rules should be short, clear, and positive. Understanding reasons for rules is essential, and allowing student input promotes understanding, gives the students a sense of control, and contributes to self-regulation. Procedures organize classroom routines. Rules and procedures must be carefully taught, monitored, and reviewed. Rules and procedures should be treated as concepts; learners should be provided with examples and non-examples from which they construct understanding of both. The first few days of the school year are essential for establishing long-term routines.

    Communication with Parents

    Parents play a crucial role in supporting teachers’ management systems. Involving parents increases student achievement, improves attitudes, and results in better attendance and greater willingness to do homework. Formal communication channels include open houses, interim progress reports, parent-teacher conferences, and report cards. Effective teachers also communicate expectations immediately and maintain communication with parents throughout the school year.
    Economic, cultural, and language barriers can pose special challenges for teacher-parent communication.

    Dealing with Misbehavior: Interventions

    Effective teachers keep management interventions brief, preserve student dignity, and follow through consistently. Focusing on positive behavior, ignoring misbehavior, and employing simple desists can eliminate minor disruptions. Logical consequences help students see the connection between their behaviors and the effects of their behaviors on others. More lengthy interventions are sometimes necessary when misbehavior persists or occurs frequently.

    Serious Management Problems: Violence and Aggression

    In cases of violence and aggression, teachers should immediately stop the incident if possible, protect the victim, and get help. Teachers are required by law to intervene in cases of violence.
    Long-term solutions involve teaching students social skills such as perspective taking and social problem solving. Involving parents is essential in cases of aggressive behavior in students.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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    Replies
    1. Hi Ganesh,
      Your points about productive behaviors are well written. The point I like the most is the communication with parents. Nowadays parents are well educated. Although they come from poor family background, they worked hard to make sure their children can enjoy much better life. Some of them are too busy with their world, they tend to educate their children less manners and poor religious understandings or practices. I’m also a mother with high expectation for my daughter. I really hope her teachers educate her fully and wish for good things to happen. I kept a good and healthy communications with her teachers at school but I didn’t get to attach.
      Logical consequences play a significant value among teacher and pupils’ relationship. Talking some senses always train the pupils’ minds to differentiate behaviors before, during and after classes. Pupils can learn in many ways about the productive behavior in the classroom. Pupils must know that things happened for reasons and they should learn from mistakes done.

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    2. hi Ganesh... I would share and suggest this to you

      “RIPPLE EFFECT” by Jacob Kounin

      Jacob Kounin created the idea of the “ripple effect.” The idea is that if one student sustains positive or negative consequences, the rest of the class will see what is taking place and a ripple effect will occur. From experience, when one student misbehaves others will join in as well. On the other hand, a student receiving a reward for sitting quietly at her seat will cause other students to then join her in sitting quietly. I chose this as one of my top beliefs because managing students’ behavior in positive ways is the key to success. In a community of learners, everyone works together. By being aware of the ripple effect, I will provide positive and negative consequences for my students’ actions. I believe that the “ripple effect” does occur and that each moment can be used as a teaching moment for students, even if it means giving a reward. Students learn from others around them, and by believing in the ripple effect, I will be able to manage behaviors by addressing behaviors one or two times for students to learn what is expected.

      Delete
  4. TASK 1
    ( Productive Behaviour )

    Here are some tips and techniques for effective classroom management of productive behavior ESL classroom which I had been handle while teaching and learning process in my ESL classroom.

    1. Be fair, firm and consistent. Don’t try to be your students’ best friend. You’re in the classroom to teach, so be a mentor and not your students’ buddy. Strive to be someone they can learn from and someone they can trust if they need help.
    2. Establish clear rules from day one and be consistent in applying them. Don’t suddenly start yelling at your students or engage in erratic behavior.
    3. Demonstrate, not explain. Children need different teaching techniques from adults. Limit the wordy explanations and opt for more demonstrations. Actions speak louder than words.
    4. Establish rules and routines. Children need order and they need routines in their learning. Try to have a set schedule in their lessons. Try to start and end a lesson in a similar manner. Be strict about the rules you want to follow. For example, emphasize that you will only give gold stars to students that have finished their work early.
    5. Praise and encourage good behavior. Children respond better to praise than disapproval. Never ever use destructive criticism as this will make them feel worthless. As a teacher, you can build your students’ self-esteem through praise and positive dialogue. Draw more attention to good behavior and give out tasks to students who are being good. Rewarding students is part of the process but don’t resort to bribing them to achieve the desired results. Use ideas that give responsibility to the students such as verbal or written praise or a positive note to the parents.
    6. Vary your teaching style. Use different teaching styles to reach all your students in the classroom. Don’t just stand in front of the class since this will not interest many children. Using a wide variety of classroom techniques will engage your students and tap into their visual, auditory and tactile skills.

    Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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    1. Hi Uma,
      According to your tips and technique, mostly, I prefer to use different teaching style. It is because of different types and level of pupils in one class. Examples, through to the syllabus there are four language skills such as listening and speaking, reading, writing and language art. From that proven teacher need to vary the teaching style to make sure pupils interest are always with us.
      Maria bt Zainal
      PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

      Delete
  5. TASK 2
    ( Differences Between Motivation, Encouragement And Criticism )

    Encouragement and motivation are two actions that can be both given and received. The nice thing about this perspective is that whichever end you are on, the rewards are great and the results positive. While it is entirely possible to encourage and motivate yourself, receiving them from another source can have even greater power upon your being. When this occurs, it is like a validation or stamp of approval from that source that you can do it--you are on the right track.

    Comparison between Motivation and Encouragement:-

    Motivation Encouragement
    Description Motivation is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do something. Encouragement is the persuasion to do or to continue something.
    Types • Passive inspiration
    • Active inspiration • Gestures
    • Listening
    • Positive words
    • Be truth
    • Extra effort
    It makes • Life effortless
    • Your passion burns steady, it doesn’t flat line.
    • You feel it in your bones. • You have to hold yourself back from starting right now.
    • It occupies magnitudes of mental space, there’s no vacancy.
    • You feel called to do this; the feeling comes from your core.
    Examples • My mother is my inspiration.
    • Scientists take inspiration from nature and instill novel magnetic properties.
    • It is leadership by example and an inspiration for all of us.
    • The artists get an inspiration from the beautiful environment around them. • Private counseling and group therapy provide campers with encouragement and support.
    • He never once offered me constructive criticism, advice, or encouragement.
    • Any support and encouragement you can get will make it all the more likely that kids will get to play.

    Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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  6. TASK 2

    CRITICISM…

    Criticism is equally important. It goes hand in hand with praise, and provides an effective balance. Criticism can be viewed as advice or commentary on mistakes, poor performance, or whenever the class fails to meet the teacher's expectations. The teacher shouldn't be afraid to offer criticism, provided that the problems aren't the fault of the teacher.
    This last point is especially important, so it deserves a bit more expansion. There are many reasons for mistakes, too many to list here.

    1: Give genuine comments, not false ones. If students did well on an activity, then the teacher should say so. If they didn't do well, then the teacher shouldn't offer praise. It they did quite poorly, the teacher should explain what went wrong, answer any questions, and repeat the activity again.

    2: Give personal comments whenever possible. The teacher can easily provide individual praise and points to work on at the end of a lesson, provided the class is relatively small. If a student needs work with pronunciation, for example, then the teacher can point out a specific problem for the student to work on before the next class meeting. If individual, personal comments aren't possible at the end of the class, then the teacher can provide quick praise or criticism as students are working on activities, provided that the comments aren't disruptive.

    3: Consider praise as an opportunity to tell students what went right. The teacher should do this on a personal level whenever possible, as well as to the class as a whole. In so doing, then students know how to give a repeat performance.

    4: Consider criticism as an opportunity to tell students what went wrong. They need this feedback to correct the problem. If the problem is large, such as repeated mistakes with the target language, then the teacher should allow students to repeat the activity. This builds confidence, and more likely ensures a better performance the second time around.

    5: Make a distinction in the praise offered. If students made mistakes as they struggled through an exceptionally difficult activity, the teacher should offer praise and repeat the target language, explanation, activity, etc. If they quickly went through an easy activity, the teacher doesn't need to congratulate on a job well done. Everyone fully knows that the task was easy, which means the praise will just sound false.

    These are only a few ideas on praise and criticism. The teacher shouldn't be miserly with either, as long as he is sincere. In fact, sincerity may be the most important point. Students will definitely know when a task was too difficult or too easy, when they made mistakes, or when the got something right. They'll know when that praise and criticism was rightly deserved or just empty words.

    Uma Mageswari Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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  7. Task 2

    The two actions that either can be received or given are motivation and encouragement. Reward plays a very vital role in both the actions. It helps one to reach their goals and have a positive result. One can easily encourage and motivate oneself, but getting encouragement and motivation from others can give one a great power upon their being. It is like a sign to a person that they are on a right track.

    The Oxford Dictionary defines motivation as “a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way”. It is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do work. If a person is motivated he will do that work with more effort and try to complete his goals before or on time. It is a desire or willingness; in short, the enthusiasm to achieve something. Motivation plays a vital role in the workplace. The company managers are the ones who motivate their employees or colleagues as a team leader to reach their goals. An incentive is also something that motivates an individual to perform an action. Another place where motivation plays a key role is in education.

    The Oxford Dictionary defines encouragement as “the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope.” It is the persuasion to do or to continue something. Encouraging someone for a particular activity will make him at least try that work. Encouragement plays a vital role in education. Great teachers are those that can liberate fears from the minds of their students and give them the sense of belief, confidence and encouragement. Rewards can also be said to be an encouragement to an individual. People should also encourage others to go after their own dreams and goals. There are different kinds of encouragement: gestures, listening, positive words, truthfulness and extra effort.

    Example of motivation

    The thing about students is that they are exposed to so many different people acting as "teachers" in their lives. Everyone and everything is trying extremely hard to stimulate these students, make them think, make them work, and make them into people the world can be proud of. Because of this overwhelming input of stimulus and influence, students struggle to find their own identity and are inherently suspicious of anyone who tries to influence them.

    Once they have recognized this, they tend to deal with the constant environmental pressure by adopting one important policy: "I will only allow you to influence me if you prove to me that you're worth it." This policy is their mechanism of making sure that the right person gets to them at the right time, and it's a good way of doing it. The only time it becomes an issue is when they get impressed by a person who is a bad influence, or when a good person makes no effort to impress them.

    Example of Encouragement and Effective Praise

    The fifth supportive option focuses on student growth toward responsible behavior choices. Rather than wait for a finished product (praise), teachers can encourage positive steps, movement, improvement, progress of the student, and students’ efforts and strengths. Encouragement focuses on getting students to look within for validation and examine their own reactions to their accomplishments and their strengths. An example of encouragement (internally focused) is, “It looks as if you put a lot of effort into this picture. I’ll bet you are proud of it.”

    Example of criticism

    Group Exercise for “Separating,” by John Updike

    Read the story “Separating” on your own. Then, get into groups of three or four and work
    together on the following questions.

    1. List all the characters that appear in the story.
    2. From whose point of view is the story told?
    3. Summarize the story from that character's point of view.
    4. Now, pick another character from those you listed in question 1.
    5. Reread the last two paragraphs of the story.
    6. Extend the story.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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    Replies
    1. Hi Ganesh,
      It’s me again. I want to share these few tips on how to motivate our pupils out there.
      1. Praise Students in Ways Big and Small
      Recognize work in class, display good work in the classroom and send positive notes home to parents or hold weekly awards in your classroom
      2. Expect Excellence
      Set high, yet realistic expectations. Make sure to voice those expectations. Set short terms goals and celebrate when they are achieved.
      3. Related Articles
      Teachers are discovering that grouping and regrouping pupils in a variety of ways throughout the school day actually makes their job easier, and makes their pupils more productive. Flexible grouping is more than just moving a pupil’s seat, it is practical way to differentiate as learning needs dictate.
      4. Spread Excitement like a Virus
      Show your enthusiasm in the subject and use appropriate, concrete and understandable examples to help pupils grasp it. For example, I love alliteration. Before I explain the concept to pupils, we “improve” subjects they’re interested in. After learning about alliteration, they brainstorm alliterative titles for their chosen subjects.
      5. Mix It Up
      It’s a classic concept and the basis for differentiated instruction, but it needs to be said: using a variety of teaching methods caters to all types of learners. By doing this in an orderly way, you can also maintain order in your classroom. In a generic example for daily instruction, journal for 10 minutes to open class; introduce the concept for 15 minutes; discuss/group work for 15 minutes; Q&A or guided work time to finish the class. This way, pupils know what to expect every day and have less opportunity to act up.
      6. Assign Classroom Jobs
      With pupils, create a list of jobs for the week. Using the criteria of your choice let the pupils earn the opportunity to pick their classroom jobs for the next week. These jobs can cater to their interests and skills.
      7. Hand Over Some Control
      If pupils take ownership of what you do in class, then they have less room to complain (though we all know, it’ll never stop completely). Take an audit of your class, asking what they enjoy doing, what helps them learn, what they’re excited about after class. Multiple choices might be the best way to start if you predict a lot of “nothing” or “watch movies” answers.
      8. Track Improvement
      In those difficult classes, it can feel like a never-ending uphill battle, so try to remind pupils that they’ve come a long way. Set achievable, short-term goals, emphasis improvement, keep self-evaluation forms to fill out and compare throughout the year, or revisit mastered concepts that they once struggled with to refresh their confidence.
      10. Reward Positive Behavior Outside the Classroom
      Tie service opportunities, cultural experiences, extra -curricular activities into the curriculum for extra credit or as alternative options on assignments. Have students doing Habitat for Humanity calculate the angle of the freshly cut board, count the nails in each stair and multiply the number of stairs to find the total number of nails; write an essay about their experience volunteering or their how they felt during basketball tryouts; or any other creative option they can come up with.


      11. Plan Dream Field Trips
      With your pupils, brainstorm potential field trips tiered by budget. Cash incentive money can then be earned toward the field trips for good behavior, performance, etc. The can see their success in the classroom as they move up from the decent zoo field trip to the good state capitol day trip to the unbelievable week-long trip to somewhere special. Even though the reward is delayed, tracking progress will give pupils that immediate reward.

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  8. Task 2
    “When people are highly motivated, it's easy to accomplish the impossible. And when they're not, it's impossible to accomplish the easy.” - Bob Collings
    “The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.” - Roy E. Moody
    The Oxford Dictionary defines motivation as “a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way”. It is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do work. If a person is motivated he will do that work with more effort and try to complete his goals before or on time. It is a desire or willingness; in short, the enthusiasm to achieve something.
    There are two main types of motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It means it occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance or desire. Whereas, extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something.
    The Oxford Dictionary defines encouragement as “the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope.” It is the persuasion to do or to continue something. Encouraging someone for a particular activity will make him at least try that work.
    The Oxford Dictionary also defines criticism as the act of passing judgment as to the merits of anything, the act of passing severe judgment; censure; faultfinding, the act or art of analyzing and evaluating or judging the quality of a literary or artistic work, musical performance, art exhibit, dramatic production, and a critical comment, article, or essay; critique.
    I personally think the only different between motivation, encouragement and criticism is the act of doing either one in solving or managing pupils behaviors in the classroom. Encouragement can be seen through items or materials given as token.

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  9. Task 1a

    Based on my experience as teacher, being able to produce a productive behavior will get the best from my pupils. In my classroom, pupils come in different characters, abilities and behavior. To promote productive behavior among them will need me to set some strategies to approach them in every lesson. In every lesson, I must first know the kind of outcomes needed to be. achieved. The pupils in my classroom must learn be more as a sharer so that they can get more idea among them during the lesson. Giving incentives or rewards will improve the pupils’ participation during the lesson as they will try to be on the top of the ladder in every lesson that includes incentive and rewards by the teacher. Changing seating of the pupils also can improve the pupils’ interaction with the teacher. Most of my pupils love to play English games, so I always try to create at least a game in my lesson that can either be individual or group games and the games created by me must be meaningful towards the lesson of the day. I will also keep my eye towards the pupils that I think too excited about anything happen in the classroom using verbal or non-verbal communications so that they will keep in mind that they are still my pupils and they must stick in the rules and procedures while I am in the class.

    Task 1b

    As I am teaching the year 4, the productive behavior of my pupils has improved both my teaching and their way of learning. As a teacher, the pupils have made me try to be more creative in my teachings. Always make me try to create a new fun and meaningful way to approach them in my teachings. I also try to give more to them by challenging them with more difficult task as I see that they have improved themselves in their learning process.
    The pupils also have improved a lot since the beginning of the 2014. I have seen their reading, listening, speaking and writing skills also has improved. This means by improving how I approach them in the teaching and learning process by trying to provide to them the kind of lesson they want but still stick to my regulations, rules and procedures, I can change their behaviours towards lesson.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

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  10. Task 2a

    Motivation
    For me motivation is way to make my pupils to be better as a pupil. I as a teacher will keep the pupils motivate by always making them focusing the goals of every lesson. So, in terms motivation in the classroom It is as below:
    1. Try to make pupils to perform better.
    2. To tell pupils that they can do anything if they have the will.
    3. To drive pupils towards a better result.
    4. To keep positive attitude among the pupils.

    Encouragement
    Encouragement for me means to support my pupils as my as I could. Give them more confidence on themselves and on the lesson. Persuading them that there are not good or bad pupils but there are hardworking pupils. Below are some words that I always use for my pupils.
    1. To tell the pupils to never give up.
    2. Always tell them that they can do it.
    3. Telling the pupils that to be success is not an easy task but it is not impossible to do if they have the will.
    4. Telling the pupils that they not less than their friends in terms of ability. They will only need to work harder.

    Criticism
    For me criticism is the way to make pupils to do something better so in terms of their behavior, attitude and works so that they will try to improve I themselves. To criticize the pupils, I must be aware not to be destructive as criticism can destroy pupil’s motivation and confidence. I always use constructive criticism such as telling the pupils that they are making a lot of mistakes but we can fix it together.

    Task 2b

    To motivate the pupils in my classroom I will use praise and rewards to motivate them. Praise them if they are doing a good job in the classroom. This has proved a lot as my pupils are more motivate to be better and better. Sometimes I saw them almost racing each other to be the top in the classroom. This has also improved their participation in every activity that I have conducted in the classroom.
    To encourage my pupils to be a better learner I always tell them that to never give up easily. Never say that any tasks that hand to them is hard to do. In fact, I tell them that something that you guys do not have much experience does not mean cannot be done. Maybe they will make mistakes but as a learner they have to learn from mistakes.
    Lastly, I always criticize them mostly if they did not finish their homework. While criticizing them I also tell them that it is nothing wrong in making mistakes but by not doing your homework is not good either.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL
    Semester 5

    ReplyDelete
  11. Task 2a
    Motivation means set of facts and arguments used in support of a proposal. Children do many things simply because they want to do them. Selecting a toy or a shirt to wear is the result of "intrinsic motivation." The child makes her own choice and achieves satisfaction from both the act of choosing and from the opportunity to play with the toy or wear the shirt.
    Encouragement means words or action that gives someone confidence or hopes. Encouragement may be expressed through a smile, tone of voice, nodding, patting a child on the shoulder, expressing appreciation of the child’s efforts and improvements and in many more ways. Like any behavior, effective encouragement can be learned and improved upon. Encouragement helps to build self-esteem and confidence in children.
    Criticism means the expression of disapproval of someone or something on the basis of perceived faults or mistakes. Everyone is used to the good news-bad news method of relaying information. When teaching students to provide constructive criticism, leading with the good news is always a good idea. For instance, if students are critiquing their classmates' writing through peer revisions, ask them to describe two things they liked about their partner's piece before giving them a suggestion for improvement. When a potentially hard-to-hear piece of advice follows some positive feedback, it's easier to take. The internet is a good stage for pupils to receive criticism and support, and to improve quickly.
    Maria bt Zainal.
    PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

    ReplyDelete
  12. Task 2b
    Based on my teaching experiences, I will describe one example of the motivation, encouragement and criticism in my classroom.
    There are three classes in my timetable. Two classes in Year 1 and one class in Year 2. In Year 2 class I need activities that can attract them to give full attention in my lesson. So I need to create activities that can motivate them. My activities will conduct before the lesson and I try for a week and they always waiting for me either I ask them to finish their homework. Tell Train. Have six students leave the room. Tell the first student a 1-2 minute story full of details. Bring in a second student. Have the first student tell the second the same story. This process continues until all six have been told. The last one tells the story to the group, and then the leader repeats the original story. Because of their level, I start to tell them with three short sentences. It motivates them to remember and recall the entire sentence. For Year 1 classes I will always encourage them to participate in my lesson in class and the activities are simple and enjoyable. Adults empathies with children, showing high levels of mutual interaction. “I see that you are really excited to do this exercise, it’s fun to learn new things, isn’t it?” That is some of my way to show how to encourage my pupils in my class. For all classes that I’m teaching I will always give some critics to make them pull out their self from lazy mood. Make sure they always participate in my lesson. When teaching students to provide constructive criticism, leading with the good news is always a good idea. I will ask pupils to critiquing their classmates' writing through peer revisions; ask them to describe two things they liked about their partner's piece before giving them a suggestion for improvement. Using simple words such as good, bad, correct this or etc.
    Maria bt Zainal.
    PPG TESL Ambilan Khas

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  14. Productive pupils are advance pupils. Their actions and behaviour also different to other pupils. These pupils will get bored if teacher doesn't manage the classroom wisely. To handle these kind of pupils I need to prepare and carry out challenging activities in the classroom. They will 'busy' to solve the task.

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    1. Hai Fadhli. I think your problems can be overcame when you as a teacher set a rule for them earlier in the classroom. That is because we can cater their attitude when we know what they are able to do. Pupils that have productive behavior usually are responsible. So in my classroom I can tell them if they had finish their task earlier, they can go to the English Corner in the classroom and they can do the reading or simple language games that I have prepared for them. This activities can avoid the pupils to feel bored in the classroom. It can encourage and motivate the pupils behavior. You could also add in the reward system as they have to collect as many sticker from the teacher and only at the end of the month for those pupils who got the most sticker will be rewarded with presents such as stationery or any simple gift that would love to have. I think the activities that I suggest can help you in the classroom.

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  15. Task 2:
    Motivation is related to inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do work. Examples:
    1. My mother is my inspiration.
    2. Scientists take inspiration from nature and instill novel magnetic properties.
    3. It is leadership by example and an inspiration for all of us.
    4. The artists get an inspiration from the beautiful environment around them.

    Encouragement is the persuasion to do or to continue something. Examples:
    1. Private counseling and group therapy provide campers with encouragement and support.
    2. He never once offered me constructive criticism, advice, or encouragement.
    3. Any support and encouragement you can get will make it all the more likely that kids will get to play.

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    Replies
    1. Hi Fadhli,

      You have shown a really good point on how to motivate the pupils based on inspiration. I think parents should be the first that should inspire their children. After that pupils can look at other people and used them to inspire themselves to be a better learner.
      For encouraging the pupils, the school system can offer so much to the pupils. In the end, it is in the pupils hand to choose either to be a better learner or just to stay the way they are. Pupils should allow themselves to be more open minded to accept the teacher's opinion about them.

      Delete
    2. Well Fadli, you have a good way in motivate your pupils in order to make them to understand more about your lesson. to be a good motivator is not easy as it look.

      Delete
  16. Task 1a
    Behavior means the way somebody behaves or the way in which a person, organism, or group responds to certain set of conditions (e.g. the way our children in the social world respond to school work, home work, examination etc). I just want to share my experience where the pupils in my class are not interested and afraid of answering wrong in my question. One day, I solve the problem to create positive behavior. When I start questioning, I will show a gift to pupils who are brave to answering my question. Then, the pupils start listening to the question and excited to raise their hands. From my reading, the techniques being used, according to Adeoye (1980) and Oniye (2006), include play, simulation and games among others. These are good to build positive behavior. Play: According to Adeoye (1980), play is the child’s natural and best way to learn. Adeoye maintained that the idea of getting pupils and children to acquire new/more desirable behaviour through play was popularized by Montessori in confirmation of what earlier philosophers like Pestallozi, Jean Piaget, Rousseau, and others have done. This approach implies using a variety of approaches involving play such as children’s play, role playing and dramatization, simulations and games. In the early days of children learning, in this process of using children’s play they could be asked to get into activities like drawing, modelling, building mud/clay houses, playing with objects, singing etc. The most important point here is that in the process of exposing them to play, children learn important behaviours in an informal way Simulation and games: These are teaching techniques in which real life situations and values are simulated by substitution, although they may still display similar characteristics of the original situation. This approach is otherwise known as vicarious teaching or learning. It is expected that through this approach children would be assisted to participate in class work in a relaxed atmosphere.
    Task 1b
    In my classroom I always practically this tip to create conducive learning for my pupils. First, activities that I’m creating are purposeful and interesting with clear goals that students perceive to be worthwhile. I provide adequate and relevant learning resources which offer students choice and the motivation to participate. Encourage student self-evaluation of progress and achievement on learning tasks. Such as, group work and individual activities. To build a good behavior for my pupils, I paste the simple chart to them follow. There are five simple tips that they must follow. Eyes on the speaker, ears listening carefully, mouth silent, hands to you and feet still.
    Maria bt Zainal
    PPG TESL Ambila Khas

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  17. TASK 1 : COMMUNICATING WITH PARENTS

    I believe that communicating with parents about classroom behaviors and management is extremely important. Canter believed that parents need to be informed prior to day one about behavior and consequences. Both positive and negative consequences should be shared with parents and guardians. By writing a letter at the beginning of the year, I will help create a positive teacher-parent relationship. Parents should know how their children are behaving in class, whether it is good or bad. By keeping in touch with letters and notes, emails, or phone calls, parents will feel as if they are important to their child’s success in the classroom. If parents do not feel important to their children’s education, or welcome in the classroom, the students will suffer. There must be a good teacher-parent relationship so that everyone is on the same page to support the student’s needs. If there is no support at home, the student will struggle in the classroom

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  19. TASK 2
    Encouragement and motivation are two actions that can be both given and received. The nice thing about this perspective is that whichever end you are on, the rewards are great and the results positive. While it is entirely possible to encourage and motivate yourself, receiving them from another source can have even greater power upon your being. When this occurs, it is like a validation or stamp of approval from that source that you can do it--you are on the right track.
    Example:
    My past mistakes have allowed me to experience the differences between criticism and encouragement at many different levels and for many different reasons. Criticism and blame have never led me to achieve anything worthwhile. On the other hand what’s been afforded to me through love, encouragement, appreciation, forgiveness, and empathy have been the starting point of every worthwhile achievement I can remember.
    The biggest differences I can recall between criticism and encouragement has to do with what is planted within. Criticism generally has made me frustrated, angry, discouraged, and ultimately depressed. On a few occasions it temporarily instilled in me the will to ‘show’ the other person. This feeling quickly dissipated and was again replaced by a feeling of distress. Encouragement on the other hand has had a different life-changing quality about it – it inspired, motivated, and uplifted me. It took my mistakes and gave me energy and helped strengthen my resolve and determination to learn from those mistakes. It provided a framework for growth and in the process created respect and loyalty.
    Every interaction in our lives happens only once. Each interaction gives us the chance to imprint something on our own lives as well as those we interact with. With every opportunity that arises I hope to provide the encouragement that so many others have given me in hopes that this will help them achieve great things in their life. If I do this, then I’ll have achieved one in mine.

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  20. Task1

    Make Rules Clear
    If there are rules in society, there are rules at school and in the classroom. Kids need to know what is expected of them and how the classroom will be organized. Teaching them the rules is just as important as teaching anything else. One option is to make a set of rules yourself and share them with the class on the first day. You can ask them what they think of the rules and why they believe these rules are important. With older kids, you might want to try a more democratic approach. If rules come from them and as a group, accepting those rules will come more naturally because they’ll feel like part of the process.

    2
    Appropriate vs Inappropriate Behavior
    There are things that should be done and others that shouldn’t, it’s that simple, and it should be to them as well. Here is an interesting and constructive activity you can do with the kids. Make a list on the board of things that happen in any classroom good and bad. Then on poster board make two columns titled “appropriate” and on the other side “inappropriate”. They read the list and tell you what is appropriate and inappropriate. When you are done, go over it again and cross check the list with the rules set previously. With young children, use flash cards that show what is right and what isn’t.

    3
    Consequences
    As they say, “rules are meant to be broken”. This may be true, but in your classroom there are things you can do to avoid it. This is where another activity comes in handy: The Consequence chart. Children need to understand there are natural consequences and logical consequences to things they do. For instance you could ask them, “what could happen if someone throws a pen at a fellow classmate?” Wait for their answers, then if necessary elicit more. A typical answer from a student would be “you would get mad” or “it might hit someone on the face and hurt them”. Both are correct, the first is a logical consequence and the second a natural consequence.

    4
    Incentives
    We all remember our old buddy the star chart. Teachers have been using it for ages and some still do although, many teachers now prefer a different system for rewarding their students. Giving them an incentive when they behave well encourages them to continue doing so. Keep in mind that incentives are tricky sometimes. Remember, they are not a way to coax them into doing things, they should be perceived a consequence of good work or behavior; a good way for them to see there are all types of consequences.

    5
    Use Tasks or Activities Such as Games to Reinforce Behavior
    You should always make classroom rules, talk about consequences and address issues with behavior in a constructive, nurturing and non-threatening manner. Use games and activities to encourage your kids to talk about what is happening. Games are more natural to them and while they are playing, learning also comes naturally.

    6
    Consider What Might Be Causing the Problems
    If problems with behavior become frequent, you have to analyze what is causing the problem. It could be a reaction to something going on in the class, another child, lesson organization, type of activities you choose or because the lesson is too difficult or too easy. When a child misbehaves all the time, it is rarely just in your classroom and quite likely in general. You might need a meeting with his/her parents. If this is necessary, be prepared for that meeting and explain to parents everything you do in class to teach and talk about appropriate behavior. Explain what is happening in detail and then listen to them without jumping to conclusions.

    7
    Organization is Key
    Start and end all your lessons the same way. You could start with a song or game and the ending could be similar. Make sure the way you organize the lesson is clear and make sure to be prepared; avoid confusion or last minute changes. Kids don’t react well to confusion and chaos, and they’ll do a great job in letting you know just how they feel about it!

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  21. Task 2

    The two actions that either can be received or given are motivation and encouragement. Reward plays a very vital role in both the actions. It helps one to reach their goals and have a positive result. One can easily encourage and motivate oneself, but getting encouragement and motivation from others can give one a great power upon their being. It is like a sign to a person that they are on a right track.

    The Oxford Dictionary defines motivation as “a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way”. It is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do work. If a person is motivated he will do that work with more effort and try to complete his goals before or on time. It is a desire or willingness; in short, the enthusiasm to achieve something. Motivation plays a vital role in the workplace. The company managers are the ones who motivate their employees or colleagues as a team leader to reach their goals. An incentive is also something that motivates an individual to perform an action. Another place where motivation plays a key role is in education. This is just one example, otherwise motivation is helpful and applicable in each and everything thing.

    There are two main types of motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It means it occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance or desire. Whereas, extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something.

    Beautiful quotes on Motivation:

    “When people are highly motivated, it's easy to accomplish the impossible. And when they're not, it's impossible to accomplish the easy.” - Bob Collings

    “The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.” - Roy E. Moody

    EncouragementThe Oxford Dictionary defines encouragement as “the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope.” It is the persuasion to do or to continue something. Encouraging someone for a particular activity will make him at least try that work. Encouragement plays a vital role in education. Great teachers are those that can liberate fears from the minds of their students and give them the sense of belief, confidence and encouragement. Rewards can also be said to be an encouragement to an individual. People should also encourage others to go after their own dreams and goals. There are different kinds of encouragement: gestures, listening, positive words, truthfulness and extra effort.

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  22. Although the establishment of a productive classroom environment is a difficult and complicated task, it certainly is not an impossible one. Below you will find five common-sense actions that will make this task manageable.
    Step One
    Become thoroughly familiar with the content of the courses you teach. If you don’t know the material you are supposed to cover, then your instruction will lack authority. Secondary students are quick to spot teachers who do not have a good command of content and they are justified in having no patience with such teachers.
    Step Two
    Quickly get to know your students. When you are familiar with your students, you will be better able to establish the kind of rapport with them that you need in order to be a better teacher. Successful teachers have a sound working knowledge of adolescent behavior in general and of their own students in particular.
    Step Three
    Don’t rely on punishment to control of your classes. Instead, learn as much as you can about the various disciplinary practices that are available to you. Knowing the actions that can prevent or minimize potential discipline problems will help you establish a productive, positive classroom environment.
    Step Four
    Present yourself to your students and to your colleagues as a professional educator. That means doing all of the things excellent teachers do—maintain order, organize your time and materials, teach innovative lessons, and inspire student by being the adult role model they need.
    Step Five
    Assume responsibility for your attitude about the discipline problems in your classroom. Concentrate on the positive steps you can take to help your students become self-disciplined. Learn to monitor and manage your own stress levels so that you can be the effective educator your students need.

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  23. TASK 2
    Comparison between Motivation and Encouragement:

    Motivation Encouragement
    Description Motivation is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do something. Encouragement is the persuasion to do or to continue something.
    Types • Passive inspiration
    • Active inspiration • Gestures
    • Listening
    • Positive words
    • Be truth
    • Extra effort
    It makes • Life effortless
    • Your passion burns steady, it doesn’t flat line.
    • You feel it in your bones. • You have to hold yourself back from starting right now.
    • It occupies magnitudes of mental space, there’s no vacancy.
    • You feel called to do this; the feeling comes from your core.
    Examples • My mother is my inspiration.
    • Scientists take inspiration from nature and instill novel magnetic properties.
    • It is leadership by example and an inspiration for all of us.
    • The artists get an inspiration from the beautiful environment around them. • Private counseling and group therapy provide campers with encouragement and support.
    • He never once offered me constructive criticism, advice, or encouragement.
    • Any support and encouragement you can get will make it all the more likely that kids will get to play.

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  25. TASK 1
    Productive behaviour is one we should keep in our classroom , in my opinion teachers should

    1, Become thoroughly familiar with the content of the courses . If teachers don’t know the material you are supposed to cover, then your instruction will lack authority. Pupils are quick to spot teachers who do not have a good command of content and they are justified in having no patience with such teachers.

    2. Quickly get to know your pupils. When you are familiar with your students, you will be better able to establish the kind of rapport with them that you need in order to be a better teacher. Successful teachers have a sound working knowledge of adolescent behaviour in general and of their own pupils in particular.

    3. We need to teach students positive behaviours in a thorough, consistent, systematic way; we cannot assume that pupils just know them. The Positive Action curriculum covers the following concepts.
    1.The importance of doing positive actions to feel good about yourself.
    2.Positive actions for a healthy body (such as nutrition, exercise, and sleep).
    3.Positive actions for the intellect (such as thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills).
    4.Positive actions for self-management (such as managing time, energy, emotions, and other personal resources).
    5.Positive actions for getting along with others (such as treating others fairly, kindly, and respectfully).
    6.Positive actions for being honest with yourself and others (such as taking responsibility, admitting mistakes, and not blaming others).
    7.Positive actions for improving yourself continually (such as setting and achieving goals).

    4.People need to feel good about themselves. In the Positive Action program, teachers help students understand that people are likely to feel good about themselves when they engage in positive actions. The program explains a three-step process for choosing positive actions: First, we have a thought; second, we act consistently with the thought; third, we experience a feeling about ourselves based on the action. That feeling leads to another thought, and the cycle starts again. With practice, students learn that if they have a negative thought, they can change it to a positive one that will lead to a positive action and a positive feeling about themselves—a powerful intrinsic motivation With repeated reinforcement by the teacher, this simple explanation helps pupils understand and improve their behaviour in any situation.

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    Replies
    1. Recognizing students for following rules, directives, directions, participating, etc, is one of the most effective tools for managing, promoting, and correcting undesired behaviors. Children respond far much better typically to positive reinforcement then negative. Numerous studies continue to support and validate this social dynamic:
      a) For the big and very small things students do correctly/appropriately.
      b) When students are exhibiting appropriate behaviors, following rules, are on task, using materials properly, utilizing their time well, are organized and prepared, do something nice for another, pay attention, etc.
      c) As frequently as possible.

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  26. TASK 2 differentiate between encouragement , criticism , motivation

    criticism - To criticize does not necessarily imply "to find fault", but the word is often taken to mean the simple expression of an objection By accepting criticism from a teachers , I wanted them to listen without becoming defensive, listen without giving excuses, listen to find out what they needed to do differently, and then actually do things differently to make them happy. I think I was expecting too much out of my pupils. A pupils isn’t born knowing these steps and needs to be taught them. This is such an important skill for teachers

    encouragement & motivation
    - my experience said these two is not at separate aspect . the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope is encouragement . the general desire or willingness of someone to do something is motivation

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  27. 1 (a)
    Productive behaviour are influenced by many contextual factors including interpersonal interactions and relationships with teachers and peers. Productive pupils are the advance pupils in the classroom. They would act and behave differently with other pupils. Usually in my class for year 1 these pupils will get bored if I as a teacher didn't manage my classroom wisely with extra activities for them as they had completed their task earlier. To handle these kind of pupils I need to prepare and carry out challenging and enjoyable activities in the classroom. Then they will 'busy' to try to solve the task. However, this have to be plan wisely at the beginning for each month after we know our pupils. So this would take time for me to review my pupils’ behaviour in the classroom.
    1 (b)
    This year as I was asked to teach both of year 1 I found that they were different. So from that time I was tend to find many kinds of activities to overcome this problems. Then after two months practising of the avtivities for my productive behavior pupils they had improved their way of learning and so am I because I can learn several of technique to cater my pupils. I always make try to create a new fun enjoyable and meaningful way to approach them in my teachings. Other than that these are my point to ensure my teaching and learning are effective for my pupils
    Effective Classroom Environment
    • Classroom management is about creating a classroom environment conducive to learning & achievement.
    Arranging the Classroom
    • Minimize distractions
    • Interact easily with any student
    Giving students a sense of control
    • Giving advance notices of assignments
    • Regular routines
    Keeping students on task
    • Be sure students are always busy & engaged
    • Choose tasks at an appropriate academic level.

    I have seen their reading, listening, speaking and writing skills also has improved. This means by improving my pupils I also have gain my new knowledge and my pupils can increase their understanding to be more capable in such as activities that they will do.

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  28. TASK 2 (a)
    Motivation
    Is an inner drive that arouses in pupils. It will steers them in particular directions within their self. As a teacher we could motivate our pupils to achieve our goals that is to let the pupils learn enjoyable and with fun.

    Encouragement
    It can be conducted before or during the teaching and learning process. As a teacher I can give encouragement not only when the pupils are successful but in the other way, I could use it during the pupils face difficulty or failure. All of our pupils can received encouragement in their daily life.

    Criticism
    Basically the will be defined as making comment about someone’s performance or behaviour.
    Criticize also does not necessarily simply "to find fault", but the word is often taken to mean the simple expression of an objection. The comments can be showed by using either in a positive or negative tone. As for me criticism is good to be used in the teaching and learning process because it can build up my pupils’ abilities. I will critic their hand writing while they are writing and they will tend to write it neatly in their book. We can ask them in such a polite request or we can tell them their friends’ hand writing are neat. We should give example to them and also explain the benefits of what we ask them to do in positive tone. Pupils will fell that we care about them.

    2 (b)
    In other to motivate the pupils in my classroom I will use the “Apple Tree” (rewards) and praises stars to motivate them. Usually I will only praise them if they been act in good behaviour in the classroom but for the “Apple Tree” I will only reward them with sticker and they can change the sticker with present if they collect an amount of sticker of apple. This has proved a lot as my pupils are more motivate to do better and better by completing their task in the classroom or as their homework. After practising this for a while, sometimes I saw them almost racing each other to be the top in the classroom. This has also had enhance their participation in every activity that I have conducted in the classroom.

    To encourage my pupils to be a good learner in the classroom, I always tell them to try their best and never give up easily. As a teacher ever, I have never mention to my pupils that the homework that I gave to them is hard to do. In fact, I would rather tell them that something that you guys do not have much experience or for the first time you did the task does not mean cannot be done. They also will make mistakes but as a learner they have to learn from their mistakes to achieve goals.

    As for criticize, I would use the positive words and tone when talking to my pupils to seek the pupils interest or problems. It is because, when some of them did not finish their homework they always give many kinds of reasons. So I can tell them what are the advantages and disadvantages if they did not complete their task. Other than that, I can discuss in the classroom with them about the possible ways for them to do the task well. While criticizing my pupils, I also will tell them that it is okay to make mistakes during completing their homework but by not completing your homework is not good either. Peers in the classroom also can be an example for them too.

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  29. task 2
    As a teacher we must know how to attack our pupils in learning and they attention in class. that why we must know the differencess between motivations, encouragement and criticism and also when is the right way in applying these because if we as the teacher just come to school and just do our role teaching in class like a robot , i very sure we can be assume as bad teacher.
    Motivation is the way on how you want to courage your pupils to achieve and increase their achievement in class. motivation can be done in many ways like talks, giving prizes and etc. in my class i always give them talks on be more positive thinking in learning English seems that most of my pupils think that English is hard to learn.

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  30. encouragement almost like motivation but it more to give the pupils more intention in learning. we can encourage pupils by give more supportive in the way they want to achieve their gold.
    criticism can be done in two ways where negative or positive. Usually people always think using negative because some pupils can realise by giving them negative critic then make them thinking deeply about their action or achievement in class.

    For me, after being a teacher, i realize that these three have their own strenghtness and weakness. Actually it depend on the pupils behaviour on which from these three we want to apply in our classroom. For some pupils may be a good motivation can make them realize but for some pupils need negative motivation to achieve in their studies.

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  31. Task 1

    My first teaching experience was very disappointing. I was shocked to get a class of students who could hardly speak in the target language. I was in the verge of giving up when my headmistress to take it at my strike to make a change in my students.

    I started teaching them the basics of the language, that is English Language. I introduced the parts of speech, namely, subject, verb, agreement to form simple sentences. I used substitution tables to get the students to form sentences orally and then in writing. Then I progress to paragraph level.

    The strategy I used was to get the students to describe a stimulus that was shown to the class. The students had mastered the sentence structures and also mastered the vocabulary and this had increased the confidence level in the students. They were willing to express their views and construct sentences in the class. My class had become more interactive and lots of learning was taking place in the midst of the noise around. This showed healthy learning environment as my once passive students had become active, vocal and interactive. This showed a productive behaviour in my students.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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  32. Task 2

    Motivation

    The Oxford Dictionary defines motivation as “a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way”. It is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do work. If a person is motivated he will do that work with more effort and try to complete his goals before or on time. It is a desire or willingness; in short, the enthusiasm to achieve something. Motivation plays a vital role in the classroom. The teacher is the one who motivates their students to reach their goals. An incentive can also be a form of motivation.

    Example

    In my classroom, I always motivate my students to read materials in English Language so that they can improve the mastery of the language. I instilled in them the interest to study and it had shown a great improvement in the students. My students have built the confidence in them to interact with their peers . I am glad that through my motivation strategies the students have improved.

    Encouragement

    The Oxford Dictionary defines encouragement as “the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope.” It is the persuasion to do or to continue something. Encouraging someone for a particular activity will make him at least try to excel in the work. Encouragement plays a vital role in education. Great teachers are those that can reduce fears from the minds of their students and give them the sense of belief, confidence and encouragement. Rewards can also be said to be an encouragement to an individual. People should also encourage others to go after their own dreams and goals.

    Example

    In my classroom, my students are motivated to learn but they do not know how to study. As a teacher , I need to build the confidence of these students by encouraging them adopt the habit of studying at home so that their performance will improve. Providing this encouragement to my students had motivated them to excel.




    Criticism


    Criticism is a way to make students to do something better in terms of their behaviour, attitude and work so that they will try to improve themselves.
    The teacher should approach criticism in a positive manner so that the learners are not demotivated. Constructive criticism will help to mould a student in a positive manner but destructive criticism will bring about negative impact on a learner.

    Example

    As teachers, we have to be alert when we adopt this manner of reprimanding the students. In my classroom, I have students who are not serious in their work. They have bad handwriting although they are excellent students in the class. I need to show them that positive attitude is important in order to show an overall development in them. If ones handwriting is bad, it portrays a negative image of a learner. This constructive approach that I took to show my students have made them make a change in their handwriting and they have been praised by all their other teachers.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 5

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  33. Task 1a
    There are 5 steps that we can use to teach in a productive behaviour in our ESL classroom. The steps are;Step One
    Become thoroughly familiar with the content of the courses you teach. If you don’t know the material you are supposed to cover, then your instruction will lack authority. Secondary students are quick to spot teachers who do not have a good command of content and they are justified in having no patience with such teachers.

    Step Two
    Quickly get to know your students. When you are familiar with your students, you will be better able to establish the kind of rapport with them that you need in order to be a better teacher. Successful teachers have a sound working knowledge of adolescent behavior in general and of their own students in particular.

    Step Three
    Don’t rely on punishment to control of your classes. Instead, learn as much as you can about the various disciplinary practices that are available to you. Knowing the actions that can prevent or minimize potential discipline problems will help you establish a productive, positive classroom environment.

    Step Four
    Present yourself to your students and to your colleagues as a professional educator. That means doing all of the things excellent teachers do—maintain order, organize your time and materials, teach innovative lessons, and inspire student by being the adult role model they need.

    Step Five
    Assume responsibility for your attitude about the discipline problems in your classroom. Concentrate on the positive steps you can take to help your students become self-disciplined. Learn to monitor and manage your own stress levels so that you can be the effective educator your students need.



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  34. Task 1b
    An important distinction made by Cazden (2001) is that teachers are responsible for both the affective and academic aspects of effective classrooms and classroom talk. Teachers can direct classroom discourse so that both these goals are targeted and supported. For example, teachers can accept, deny, recast, expand, or encourage elaboration of students' responses. "Success for students in culturally diverse classrooms depends on the degree to which there are strategies that encourage all students to talk and work together" (DeVillar & Faltis, 1991). One strategy (among many) promoted by Echevarria and Graves (2003) is the use of direct, rather than indirect, questions to promote clarity. So while instructional talk should be engaging, there is a place to use direct questions of students and then facilitate the elaboration of their responses as a means to develop academic language use and motivate them as learners.

    For ELLs especially, the teacher serves as a conduit for sharing information and scaffolding social and academic language. Low levels of instruction and low-quality interactions often combine to yield poor academic achievement among students who are busy constructing the meaning of the language and the content of school. Rich language interactions, however, encourage thinking, social relationships, and expanded language use. As Johnston (2004) admonished, we "have to think more carefully about the language we use to offer our students the best learning environments we can"
    The following are some general guidelines.

    Uphold high expectations for student participation. Expect everyone to contribute. During key discussions, use a class roster to keep track of students' participation levels and employ ways to get students talking beyond having them raise their hands (e.g., choral responses, shared reading, and paired discussions).
    Practice behaviors that value and elaborate students' contributions. Smile and share common courtesies. Make eye contact and move closer to the speaker, if possible, unless these gestures seem to make a student uncomfortable.
    Allow sufficient wait time, including patient pauses that support students' possible need for code switching (i.e., thinking or speaking in one language and switching to another). Repeating the question or prompt allows more time for processing while engaging more students.
    Use yes or no, either, or other prompts to bridge language gaps. Because oral language production competence follows reception skills, students can comprehend more than they can verbalize. Giving students a way to show their knowledge without having to construct complete sentences keeps students involved and scaffolds their use of English to evidence their understanding.
    Accept phrases and partial answers and model more complete sentences. Helping students elaborate their ideas into full sentences with academic structures and terms will help them to write their ideas down in more standard English.
    Model standard pronunciation and grammar. Slowing down, oversimplifying, or speaking more loudly are not necessary. Rephrasing and gesturing to help convey meaning are more helpful. Remember to amplify, not simplify (Gibbons, 2002).
    Find time to make small talk on a one-to-one basis. Ask questions frequently and listen carefully to student responses. Making time for less intimidating exchanges (e.g., small groups, individual conferences) may provide information that you can use when leading whole-group discussions later.
    Don't relent on your expectation of participation. Practice possible follow-up responses to enlarge your response repertoire. Videotape some key class discussions to help self-assess your effectiveness with ELLs.
    Be a good listener, focusing on the content of the message rather than its grammatical structure. Acknowledging a student's message is likely to increase interaction, while correcting grammar may not and, in fact, might shift the focus from content to form.

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  35. Task 2
    Motivation
    Motivation is related to the inspiration that increases the eagerness or willingness to do something. As for the students, they have to be motivated to do something so that they know what are they targeting.
    Example of motivatian
    I always motivate my students to read more English books to enrich their vocabulary. During the NILAM time, I will make sure that my students choose English books to read. This can improve their English.
    Encouragement
    Encouragement is the persuasion to do or to continue something. As teacher, I have to know how to persuade my students like to learn English. There are a few types of encouragement such as gestures, listing, positive words, be truth and extra effort. Not only giving some tokens if the student achieve good results but also i praise the student infront of his/her friends. This can make the students enjoy the lesson meaningfully.
    Criticism
    Think it over. Make sure you aren't just praising people with lies. Only tell them the truth about what was good! Wouldn't you be upset if they told you how good something was, but it was really a lie? Probably. And people will know you're lying if you're not genuine; the body messages will definitely give you away.
    People won't want to be around you if you keep criticizing. Face up to it sooner rather than later because bitterness as you age tends to become stronger until it's almost immovable.
    Only give criticism if necessary If you absolutely have to, and if you can't follow any of these steps to find some good, at least tell them nicely! Don't yell or shout, but say calmly, "You didn't do well, but there's always room for improvement. Would you like me to help you?" instead of, "That was terrible! You didn't even try! I bet a two year old could do better than you just did!"

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    1. ncouragement and motivation are two actions that can be both given and received. The nice thing about this perspective is that whichever end you are on, the rewards are great and the results positive. While it is entirely possible to encourage and motivate yourself, receiving them from another source can have even greater power upon your being. When this occurs, it is like a validation or stamp of approval from that source that you can do it--you are on the right track.

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  37. TASK 1

    Did you ever hear the phrase, "Treat the symptom, and ignore the disease"? Many people handle discipline that way. They try to eliminate challenging behaviour (usually with punishment) without looking into why the behaviour occurred. A well-managed classroom is one in which students are consistently engaged in productive learning. Effective classrooms are the result of effective classroom management.
    Teachers with effective classroom management skills:
    1. Physically arrange the classroom in a way that minimizes distractions and facilitates teacher-student interaction
    2. Create a climate in which students feel they belong and are intrinsically motivated to learn
    3. Set reasonable limits for behavior
    4. Plan activities that encourage on-task behavior
    5. Continually monitor what students are doing
    6. Modify instructional strategies when necessary
    7. Effective teachers keep students on task by:
    • Keeping students productively engaged and on task
    • Choosing developmentally appropriate tasks
    • Providing structure and support so students know exactly what they need to do
    • Adequately planning for transitions

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  38. Task2
    There’s a fine line between false praise and true encouragement. Kids (and adults) see through the first, but they thrive on the second.By offering specific encouragements, you’re giving your pupils a picture of the positive behaviors they’re displaying as well as some clues for them into what they should strive to repeat. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?

    The word "motivation" is typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction, and continuation of behaviour. Actually, it is often used to describe certain sorts of behaviour. A student who studies hard and tries for top grades may be described as being "highly motivated", while his/her friend may say that he is "finding it hard to get motivated". Such statements imply that motivation has a major influence on our behaviour.
    Motivation can be defined as a concept used to describe the factors within an individual which arouse, maintain and channel behaviour towards a goal. Another way to say this is that motivation is goal-directed behaviour.

    Positive Praise
    Why should I do it:
    i. Some students need outward motivators
    ii. It helps keep students engaged
    iii. Provides encouragement
    iv. Boosts confidence, self-concept, and self-esteem
    v. Increases student buy-in
    vi. Builds rapport and trust
    vii. Is uplifting
    viii. Increases students’ desire and drive to please and succeed
    ix. Increases students’ resilience
    x. Helps embed an internal desire to try, succeed, and persist
    xi. Helps students to push through difficulty, barriers, blocks, etc
    When should I do it:
    i. Positive praise, according to research, should always be done with every student at a ratio of at least 4 positive praises to 1 criticism
    ii. When students are stuck, frustrated, getting bogged down, etc
    iii. When students exhibit good behavior, expectations, help others, show generosity, share, etc
    iv. When students put forth good effort
    v. When students succeed, overcome, persist, push through, achieve, etc
    vi. When students demonstrate positive behaviors
    vii. When students use productive coping skills, problem solving skills, etc
    viii. When students are independent, self-start, etc
    ix. When students look down, need encouragement, are having issues, personal difficulties, peer conflict, etc
    x. When you want to increase a positive behavior
    xi. When you want to improve trust and rapport with students
    xii. When a student steps outside their comfort zone, looks embarrassed, seems to feel stupid, takes a risk, etc
    How do I do it:
    i. Praise, according to research, should be given in a ratio of at least 4 praises to 1 criticism
    ii. When students display positive or productive behaviors, actions, skills, characteristics, etc, or appear to need some encouragement, etc, verbally praise the student and/or give them a high-five, pat on the back, clap, exclamation, cheer, hop, etc
    iii. Praise can be done either quietly or if the student is motivated by peer approval, can be done in front of the class
    iv. Praise can be verbal or physical (like pat on the back, fist pump, head nod, hop, jump, etc)

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