Thursday, December 4, 2014

Language Assessment : Topic 3: Basic Testing Terminology


  1. Online Task 3:
    • Norm-Referenced and Criterion Referenced Tests
    • Formative and Summative Tests
    • Objective and Subjective Tests

    Compare and contrast any pair of tests.nclude examples from your experience testing pupils in primary ESL classroom.

    1. First of all the main detail that serves both objective and subjective questions is without any doubt the scoring methods. Objective tests usually have only one correct answer. They can be scored mechanically. Items in an objective test, however, can be made just as easy or as difficult as the test TTS set. Same goes to the subjective test items. Subjective questions are score using the marker’s judgment. The only different between these two methods are the scoring. The scoring method is the only factor that distinguished an objective to subjective test.
      From my point of view, objective test contribute to acknowledge pupils vocabulary content while wide range of vocabulary plus the understanding the principle usage of grammar items help pupils to perform well orally and of course writtenly.

  2. The ppt sildes are obtained from

  3. Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Tests

    Norm-referenced tests are specifically designed to rank test takers on a “bell curve,” or a distribution of scores that resembles, when graphed, the outline of a bell-i.e., a small percentage of pupils performing well, most performing average, and a small percentage performing poorly. To produce a bell curve each time, test questions are carefully designed to accentuate performance differences among test takers, not to determine if pupils have achieved specified learning standards, learned certain material, or acquired specific skills and knowledge. For example, end year examination test compare an examinee’s performance to that of other examinees. The goal is to rank the pupils based on their achievement.

    Tests that measure performance against a fixed set of standards or criteria are called criterion-referenced tests. Criterion-referenced test results are often based on the number of correct answers provided by pupils, and scores might be expressed as a percentage of the total possible number of correct answers. On a norm-referenced exam, however, the score would reflect how many more or fewer correct answers a student gave in comparison to other pupils. Hypothetically, if all the pupils who took a norm-referenced test performed poorly, the least-poor results would rank pupils in the highest percentile. Similarly, if all pupils performed extraordinarily well, the least-strong performance would rank pupils in the lowest percentile. For example, oral speaking test has pre-determined standards that need to be achieved by pupils. Pupils who have achieved the criteria are given marks based on the criteria.The goal with these tests is to determine whether or not the candidate has the demonstrated mastery of a certain skill or set of skills.

    It should be noted that norm-referenced tests cannot measure the learning achievement or progress of an entire group of pupils, but only the relative performance of individuals within a group. For this reason, criterion-referenced tests are used to measure whole-group performance.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 6

  4. Objective and Subjective Tests
    A Subjective test requires the student to explain the answer to a particular question in his/her own words. This may include typing the answer or writing using a pen/pencil on a sheet of paper.
    An objective test requires the user to either pick one or more of the many options provided by the test makers or provide their own answer in a word or two.
    In short, objective tests encourage memorization while subjective tests encourage understanding

  5. Objective test basically is a type of test requires right or wrong answers or responses. This type of test is easy to design and to be conducted. It is quick and the teacher can or can be provided by quick result for or from the pupils. The type of test includes multiple choice questions, true or false, matching items and fills in the blank. As for me, I usually do multiple choice questions for beg exams such as the mid semester test or the semester test. While the other test usually done after certain topics in every day’s lesson.

    Subjective test is a test where pupils giving their answers in written form according to the question’s criteria. Usually based on what they have learnt. This type of test allows the pupils to generate their own ideas and proving their skills and knowledge to give a good response. For me subjective test is one of the ways to explore hire thinking skills among the pupils. In my experience, usually the test can be done after certain topics and also during exams.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL SEM6 2015

  6. Summative vs. Formative
    Summative assessments, students are evaluated upon completion of the work and the focus is on the final product. With formative assessments, students are evaluated during the work process and the focus is on improving the process.
    Formative assessment
    Ongoing observations and methods of evaluation designed to measure student comprehension of a concept or task in order to identify areas that require enhanced or adapted instruction. It emphasizes the mastery of classroom content instead of the earning of grades or test scores and is conducted throughout the entire instructional process to gauge students’ progress.

  7. Test results can be compared against an established criterion, or against the performance of other students, or against previous performance:-
    Criterion-referenced assessment, typically using a criterion-referenced test, as the name implies, occurs when candidates are measured against defined (and objective) criteria. Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a person's competence (whether s/he can do something). The best known example of criterion-referenced assessment is the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as "Not endangering other road users").
    A criterion-referenced test is one that provides for translating test scores into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered criterion-referenced tests. The objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material.
    Norm-referenced assessment (colloquially known as "grading on the curve"), typically using a norm-referenced test, is not measured against defined criteria. This type of assessment is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment. It is effectively a way of comparing students. The IQ test is the best known example of norm-referenced assessment. Many entrance tests (to prestigious schools or universities) are norm-referenced, permitting a fixed proportion of students to pass ("passing" in this context means being accepted into the school or university rather than an explicit level of ability). This means that standards may vary from year to year, depending on the quality of the cohort; criterion-referenced assessment does not vary from year to year (unless the criteria change).
    Norm-referenced refers to standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another. Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.

    Uma Mageswari D/O Balakrishnan
    Sem 6

  8. Objective and Subjective Tests

    Objective will be done in order to evaluate the pupils’ understanding. This is because pupils have to read to understand the questions or they have to be more alert of the situation provided because there will be only one correct answer that are provided. Pupils will have to answer High Order Thinking Skills type of question too. This would make the objective test is a bit difficult for the intermediate and weaker pupils.

    Meanwhile the subjective questions seems difficult to answer as if the pupils general knowledge are not widen enough. The score were based on teacher (markers’ judgment). Here pupils can write any possible answer. Pupils will have a chance to try to answer all the subjective questions.

    I think, the objective test will enhance the pupils’ knowledge for vocabulary content with plenty of vocabulary and also the usage of grammar items. Pupils also will have to decide the answer very well when the teacher implement HOTS in the test. Different with subjective, it will make the pupils understand and write the answers. The pupils also would tend to memorize the answer.

  9. Formative assessment
    The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. examples : - draw a concept map in class to represent their understanding of a topic - submit one or two sentences identifying the main point of a lecture - turn in a research proposal for early feedback

    Summative assessment
    The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. Examples: - mid term test or monthly test

  10. Objective and Subjective Test

    Objective test is a test that consists of right and wrong answers or responses and it can be marked objectively. It is popular because they are easy to prepare and take, quick to mark and provide concrete result.

    Subjective test is evaluated by giving an opinion, usually based on agreed criteria. It includes essay, short answer, vocabulary and take-home tests. Most of the students did not like this kind of test.Actually the subjective test provides more opportunity to test-takers to show their understanding in knowledge and skills in the subject matter.

    In my experience, I always tend to do objective test because for me it easy to prepare and easy to get the actual result. For the subjective test I will take some time to finish marking it. But both of the test are needed to given to the pupils to test their ability.

  11. Formative Test
    • Use to check students’ progress
    • The information gained guides the next steps in instruction and helps teachers and students consider the additional learning opportunities needed to ensure success
    • Formative assessment information must be fed forward into an instructional model that allows for responsiveness to student need
    Examples of Formative Test
    • Projects and performances
    • Writing assignments
    • Tests and quizzes
    • Asking questions
    Summative Test
    • Summative test provide teachers and students with information about the attainment of knowledge
    • Often result in a grade which means they have a high point value (i.e. they “count a lot”)
    • The goal is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some sort of standard or benchmark
    Examples of Summative Test
    • A final project
    • A midterm paper
    • A midterm exam
    • A paper
    In my experience teaching Year 1 and Year 2 KSSR, my pupils familiar with formative test to check students progress during daily lesson such as quizzes and asking question. They also have combining formative and summative test in Saringan Linus for mid-term and end-term school day.

    Maria binti Zainal
    PPG Tesl
    Semester 6

  12. Formative assessment
    The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More specifically, formative assessments:
    help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work
    help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately. Formative assessments are generally low stakes, which means that they have low or no point value. Examples of formative assessments include asking students to:
    a) draw a concept map in class to represent their understanding of a topic
    b) submit one or two sentences identifying the main point of a lecture
    c) turn in a research proposal for early feedback

    Summative assessment
    The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.
    Summative assessments are often high stakes, which means that they have a high point value. Examples of summative assessments include:
    1) a midterm exam
    2) a final project
    3) a paper
    4) a senior recital
    Information from summative assessments can be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses.

  13. Performance assessment, as conceived in personnel psychology, requires the examinee to create a product or deliver a performance in a real world situation or simulation that could be evaluated using specified criteria. Raters typically score the performance using checklists or rating scales (Fitzpatrick & Morrison, 1971). When educators transported this procedure to classroom settings, their early performance exercises reflected this definition as shown in the following examples: determine the cost of carpeting a classroom, given a tape measure and carpet cost per square foot; determine the chemical composition of an unknown powdered compound.
    Classroom assessment is the process, usually conducted by teachers, of designing, collecting, interpreting, and applying information about student learning and attainment to make educational decisions. There are four interrelated steps to the classroom assessment process. The first step is to define the purposes for the information. During this period, the teacher considers how the information will be used and how the assessment fits in the students' educational program. The teacher must consider if the primary purpose of the assessment is diagnostic, formative, or sum-mative. Gathering information to detect student learning impediments, difficulties, or prerequisite skills are examples of diagnostic assessment. Information collected on a frequent basis to provide student feedback and guide either student learning or instruction are formative purposes for assessment, and collecting information to gauge student attainment at some point in time, such as at the end of the school year or grading period, is summative assessment.
    The next step in the assessment process is to measure student learning or attainment. Measurement involves using tests, surveys, observation, or interviews to produce either numeric or verbal descriptions of the degree to which a student has achieved academic goals. The third step is to evaluate the measurement data, which entails making judgments about the information. During this stage, the teacher interprets the measurement data to determine if students have certain strengths or limitations or whether the student has sufficiently attained the learning goals. In the last stage, the teacher applies the interpretations to fulfill the aims of assessment that were defined in first stage. The teacher uses the data to guide instruction, render grades, or help students with any particular learning deficiencies or barriers.

  14. as for me I prefer formative test and summative test.These two of test is very good in evaluate and measuring the pupils ability in understanding the topic that been thought to them for the in the year they were in.formative test is used for the short term of evaluation. it can be conducted by the teacher when ever he /she like.
    maybe every week, every day or once a month.For summative test, it used for a long term . usually it conducted in the middle of the year and at the end of the year example middle year exam and final year exam.No matter of what test the main purpose of all the tests are same where to measure, to evaluate the capabality of the pupils in learning process.