Thursday, December 4, 2014

Language Assessment: Topic 7: Scoring, Grading and Assessment Criteria



























18 comments :

  1. TQ in advance Miss Kee. Happy belated Chinese New Year

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  2. Dear teachers,
    Compare and contrast holistic and analytic approaches.

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    Replies
    1. Holistic approach is often referred to as "impressionistic" scoring that involves the assignment of a single score to a piece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it. The approach has individual features of a text, such as grammar, spelling, and organization but it should not be considered as separate entities. It also works well and can be altered to fit the level of the pupils and the focus of instructions. A numerical scale that ranks performance at levels described as "superior," "competent," and "incompetent" are used to describe pupils’ performances. Thus for each level, the descriptions can be changed to reflect the kind of performance that teachers expect at a given level of language ability.
      While talking about analytic approach, it is a method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task, such as grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, idiomatic expression, organization, relevance and coherence. Teachers are compelled to consider aspects of performance which they might otherwise ignore during the lesson. The fact that the teacher has to give a number of scores, it then tends to make the scoring more reliable. Scoring schemes provide more detailed information about the pupils’ performances.

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  3. Holistic Scoring:

    • Often referred to as "impressionistic" scoring
    • Involves the assignment of a single score to a piece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it.
    • Individual features of a text, such as grammar, spelling, and organization, should not be considered as separate entities.
    • Has the advantage of being very rapid.

    Analytic Scoring:

    • A method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task, such as grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, idiomatic expression, organization, relevance, coherence.
    • Disposes of the problem of uneven development of subskills in individuals.
    • Scorers are compelled to consider aspects of performance which they might otherwise ignore.
    • The very fact that the scorer has to give a number of scores will tend to make the scoring more reliable.
    • In some schemes, each of the components is given equal weight. In other schemes, the relative importance of the different aspects, as perceived by the tester (with or without statistical support), is reflected in weightings attached to the various components.

    Disadvantages:
    o It takes more time than holistic scoring.
    o Concentration on the different aspects may divert attention from the overall effect of the piece of writing. Inasmuch as the whole is often greater than the sum of its parts, a composite score may be very reliable but not valid.

    Ganesan Veerappan
    PPG Tesl
    Sem 6

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  4. • Analytic thinking involves understanding a system by thinking about its parts and how they work together to produce larger-scale effects.
    • Holistic thinking involves understanding a system by sensing its large-scale patterns and reacting to them.

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  5. Holistic;

    Readers react to student’s composition as a whole and a single score is awarded to the writing. It means, the markers will go through the written composition done by a certain pupils. After that, the markers will analyse the composition based on the scoring scheme given to them. The mark will be given based on the criteria on the scoring scheme

    Analytic;

    In analytic scoring, teachers will evaluate the composition based on the criteria given. Each criterion will have its own mark. This way of scoring will allow teacher to search for certain criterion of scoring such as the content, vocabulary an etc to mark the pupil’s composition.

    Mohd Nizam Mohamed
    PPG TESL SEM6 2015

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  6. 1. lower than analytic, but still acceptable
    2. assume that all relevant aspects of writing ability develop at the same rate and can thus be captured in a single score; correlate with superficial aspects such as length and handwriting
    3. relatively fast and easy
    4. single score may mask an uneven writing profile and may lead to misleading placements

    Analytic Scales
    1.higher than holistic
    2. different aspects of writing ability develop at different rates
    3. time-consuming; expensive
    4. provide useful diagnostic information for placement and/or instruction; more useful for rater training

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  7. An analytical marking scheme divides the available marks between different criteria, with weightings according to their relative importance. Each criteria is then assigned a portion of the available mark according to the standard reached on that criteria alone and the sum of all the marks gives the total mark. Analytical systems can make the provision of detailed feedback for students easier as students can receive much information from their marks for each of the criteria. They can tell exactly which areas were well done and which areas need more work, without the need for specific comments from teachers.

    A holistic scheme does not divide the marks between the criteria. Instead how the criteria contribute to the quality of the whole is considered, rather than as individual parts. Holistic marking systems avoid these issues but are seen by some to be less objective, since the process of awarding marks against criteria is internalised and not so explicit. However holistic marking schemes are time-honoured and used in many areas where judgement is required and are considered equally valid. In the end all marking requires a judgement.

    I often switch between the two systems as I need to, to best manage workload. I prefer using a holistic system but will often use a skeleton analytical system to help me most easily provide feedback to students and to aid my marking job, especially when working in situations when I might be interrupted. I will then overlay a holistic judgement and may alter the component marks of an analytical system to meet my holistic judgement.

    Uma Mageswari D/O Balakrishnan
    PPG TESL
    Sem 6
    2015

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  8. * Analytic (logical thinking) = sequential processing
    Need pupils to cater a lot of skills in order to achieve the goal.

    * Holistic (global thinking) = simultaneous processing
    Will emphasis the pupils' strength during the assessment.

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  9. The holistic approach involves the assignment of a single score to apiece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it.

    The analytic approach is a method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task.

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  10. The holistic approach involves the assignment of a single score to apiece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it.

    The analytic approach is a method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task.

    ReplyDelete
  11. The holistic approach involves the assignment of a single score to apiece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it.

    The analytic approach is a method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task.

    ReplyDelete
  12. The holistic approach involves the assignment of a single score to apiece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it.

    The analytic approach is a method of scoring that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Holistic approach
    quickly graded, emphasize the students strengths rather than their weakness, single score may mask an uneven writing profile and may lead to misleading placements, assume that all relevant aspects of writing ability develop at the same rate and can thus be captured in a single score; correlate with superficial aspects such as length and handwriting
    Analytic approach
    time consuming; expensive, negative feedback can be pedagogically destructive, more scales provide useful diagnostic information for placement and/or instruction; more useful for rater training, more appropriate for L2 writers as different aspects of writing ability develop at different rates

    Maria binti Zainal
    PPG Tesl
    Semester 6

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  14. Holistic
    • lower than analytic, but still acceptable
    • relatively fast and easy
    Analytic
    • higher than holistic
    • time-consuming; expensive
    They are both essential tool in evaluating the students output or product, but for me, it is nice to utilize the analytic rubrics. At least, it measures effectively what part of the strength and weakness to be improved from the individual output of my students.

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  15. I guess it's more essential to use the analytic rubrics because teacher also with the students can easily identify the strengths and they are giving an idea on what is to be added or to be improved.

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  16. Holistic vs. analytic approaches
    Given an object of cognition of some complexity, the human mind has two ways of accessing it. The analytic approach consists in considering each part of the object and the contribution that it makes to the assemblage by its nature and function, and thus to arrive at a mental representation of the whole by applying rules of composition to its parts. The holistic approach is to directly grasp the whole without consideration of the parts. This can be done if the object itself is already familiar or if, by its contours or its contextual setting and function, it bears an essential analogy to some familar object.
    The two approaches complement each other in various ways.
    1. If confronted with a familiar object, we tend to take the holistic approach; if confronted with an unfamiliar object, we take the analytic approach.
    2. For a given specific object, we can often switch between the two approaches by making a fresh analysis of what used to be familiar or by disregarding compositional parts in favour of the function of the whole.
    3. A given complex object may only be analyzed in certain parts or aspects, while the internal structure of other parts remains out of consideration.

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