Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Teaching of Listening & Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL3053) Week 3-continue


  1. Group 2: Anderson, Camilla, Dhivyah and Noriana

    According to Harmer (2001), in top-down processing, the listener gets a general view of the listening passage by absorbing the overall picture, whereas in bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases, and achieves understanding by stringing these detailed elements together to build up a whole.

    Top-down processing occurs when a listener hears something which reminds him of something in his previous knowledge, leading him to predict the kind of information he is likely to hear, whereas bottom-up processing is the slow building up of meaning block by block through understanding all the linguistic data heard by the listener (Chitravelu, Sithamparam and Teh, 2005).

  2. Group 5: Jazlie, Anati, Sharvini, Liyana

    Top down
    When a listener hears something, this may remind him of something in his previous knowledge and this in turn will leads him to predict the kind of information he is likely to hear. when a listener can relate what is he about to hear with what he already knows, this will help him to understand what he hears better.

    Bottom up
    if what he hears does not trigger anything in his previous knowledge, then the listener would have to resort to 'bottom up' listening, the slow building up meaning of block by block through understanding all the linguistic data.

  3. Group 1 : Ahmad Faiq, Awangku Ahmad, Constance Chi, Huzaimah Mon

    Bottom-up listening

    This means making as much use as you can of the low level clues. You start by listening for the individual sounds and then join these sounds together to make syllables and words. These words are then combined together to form phrases, clauses and sentences. Finally the sentences combine together to form texts or conversations.

    Top-down listening

    Top-down listening means making as much use as you can of your knowledge and the situation. From your knowledge of situations, contexts, texts, conversations, phrases and sentences, you can understand what you hear.

  4. Group 3: Melissa, Nurisya, Mawaddah, Hakim

    Bottom Up process ia an externally based process. This process involves the listener to play close attention to every detail of the language input. The understanding of the heard language is worked out proceeding from sounds to words to grammatical relationships to lexical meaning.

    Top down process is an internally based process. it involves the listener's ability to bring prior information to bear on the task of understanding the heard language. It is also used by the listeners to make predictions about what the incoming message is expected to be at any point and how the pieces fit into whole.